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Golf Terms


Acceptable score: To calculate or adjust a players handicap, the Acceptable Score is a score made over an 18 hole round.

Ace: This is a term used when a golfer makes a hole in one! In other words, the tee shot is hit and it goes into the hole

Aces and deuces: One betting game in golf is called Aces and Deuces or Acey Ducey. In there four golfers play against against each other. The lowest score, so the ace, on each hole gains an agreed upon amount from all the other three players. Whereas the high score, so the deuce, has to give an agreed upon amount to all the other golfers. Normally the agreed upon amount for the ace is twice the agreed upon amount for the deuce, but the rules are not strict in there, so the group can decide by themselves about their agreed upon amount. Sometimes the game is also spelled as Acie Ducie.

Action: In golf action is another phrase for the backspin on the golfball. A action is produced by contact with the clubface. It is a rotation movement, that causes that the golfball stops quickly or even spins backwards after the impact with the turf.

Active season: Within the active season a player can adjust his handicap with the score he shot in an tournament.

Address: Contrary to popular belief, this is not where the mailman delivers to but it is the position of one’s body taken just before the golfer hits the ball. You will often hear the term “addressing the ball” which means the golfer is standing there preparing to hit the ball.

Adjusted gross score: The Adjusted Gross score is also abbreviated with AGS. Its base are the scores the players in a competition shot. Afterwards it is used to recalculate the handicaps.

Advice: An advice is normally not allowed on the golf course, but an exception are partners and caddies. If anyone else gives advice how to play the golfball, he can be punished.

Aeration: Aeration is the process to put oxygen into the turf, so to the roots. Usually it is done once or twice a year at a golf course. To loosen the turf, a special machinery makes holes in a certain pattern into the ground. Normally it needs a few weeks for the holes to fill in and grow over. For that reason some golf courses reduce the fee while the ground recovers. Sometimes the procedure is also called Aerification.

Aerosol: If a golfer is not able to shot the ball in a consistent line and sprays the ball, this is called aerosol.

Aggregate: An aggregate in golf is a score that results out of more than one round of play or if two or more players play together as partners.

Aim: If a player targets his goal and has the intention to shot his ball there, in golfvocabulary one says that this is his aim.

Aiming:  The act of aligning the clubface to the target. (She had a problem aiming the club properly all day and missed several shots to the right of her target).

Air mail: The air mail is an expression for that a golfer totally overshoot the green or has hit the ball far more than he should have.

Air presses: Air Presses are special bets in golf. The unique feature is, that the bet is automatically accepted, if someone called it. If a golfer calls air press it means, that the one who called the bet thereby says he'll be better than his opponent.

Air shot: If a player has addressed his ball, swings and misses the the ball during the swing, it is called air shot. The air shot is nevertheless counted as a regular one.

Aircraft carrier: With aircraft carrier golfers associate a teeing ground which includes all the tees for a hole.

Albatross: An old British name for a double eagle. What’s that you say, two eagles? No, it means you scored 3 under par on a single hole! In other words, you scored a 2 on a par 5 hole. It’s a very good score and doesn’t happen very often.

Alfred s. Bourne trophy: The winner of the Senior PGA Championship gains a sterling silver trophy which is called Alfred S. Bourne Trophy. Alfred S. Bourne was an original member at the popular Augusta National Golf Club who once donated $ 1,500 for the creation of a Tiffany's trophy. The result is a quite impressive, tall and heavy silver trophey which is in action since 1937. As a memory the names of all the winners of the Senior PGA Championship are engraved on the trophy. But a winner doesn't get the original trophy to keep, the winners are given a replica after they won.

Alignment:  The position of the body in relation to the initial target. (One reason she plays so well is that her alignment is so consistent from one shot to the next).

All square: All square is the expression that is used in matchplay when two parties have shot the same score. All square is often abbreviated with AS on the scoreboard.

Alternate fairway: A second fairway which offers the golfer another option, is called alternate fairway. So in fact at holes with an alternate fairway the player can decide which one he likes better for his game. The two fairways always differ themselves in some details.

Alternate green: A second putting green for one hole, which offers the golfer another option, is called alternate green. So in fact at holes with an alternate green the player can decide which one he likes better for his game. The two greens always differ themselves in some details. The opportunity of an alternate green is often used for 9-hole courses, because golfers can play a 18-hole round with only 9-holes by using the two different possibilities.

Alternate shot: The alternate shot is a special version of playing golf. In there two players are in a team and play alternately with the same ball. The golfers in the team decide among themselves who tees off first and afterwards they hit alternately. The “alternate shot” can on the one hand be played as stroke play, at the other hand as match play. The version of the alternate shot is more commonly known as foursome.

Alternate tees: Often used at 9-hole courses, the alternate tees are two different tee boxes for one hole. Hereby the golfer has the possibility to play from another position at the same hole when he plays his second nine holes. The separate sets provide completely different conditions so the golfer has an alternation even if it is the same hole.

Am-am: Am-Am is also known as Amateur-Amateur and it means that in case of an tournament where an amateur signs up he'll play in a team with another amateur player.

Amateur: Amateurs or amateur golfers in golf play for pleasure, so they don't earn their keep as golfplayer. They are not even allowed to accept money for any activity, so nor for tournament winnings, neither for teaching golf sports. As a result it is the direct opposite to professional players who do so.

Amateur status: Amateur golf players do have the so-called amateur status and wont loose it as far as they don't become professionals. Amateur status golfers never played or teached golf in exchange for money.

Ambose: A special version of the golfplay is called ambose, ambose competition or ambose tournament. In this variation two teams play against each other. As the rules define, there are at maximum four players permitted in each team. At first step all players of a team tee off, then the team designates the best stroke and the whole team plays with this ball until the ball is holed. The characteristic feature of the ambose is that the handicaps of the team members get combined. The tournament can define a special version of the handicap combination, but normally it is set, that for two persons the handicap is added together and divided by four. In case there are 3 persons in a team, the handicaps are also added together, but divided by 6. If four golfers play together in a team their handicaps are also added and the sum is divided by 8. The result is then the team-handicap for the ambose.

Amen corner: As Arnold Palmer won the US Masters Tournament in one corner of the golf course at the Augusta National Golf Club, this corner nowadays is called Amen Corner. In there, there are 3 holes, the holes 11, 12 and 13. Normally the result of US Masters Tournament gets decided in this corner.

American ball: Until 1990 there were two different minimum-sizes of golf balls, one was given by the R&A, one by the USGA. The USGA had a minimum-size, which was a little bit larger than the one of R&A. The USGA became popular as American Ball, whereas the R&A golfball became known as the British ball. In 1990 the ball sizes became standardized.

American foursomes: American Foursomes is a particular variation of playing golf. In there, two teams with two golf players in each play against each other. Then, firstly both golfers of one team tee off and has to shot the second shot with the opposite golf ball, thus with the ball of their team partner. After the second shot, they are permitted to select the golf ball with the best location and play with this ball in alternate shot fashion until its holed. The procedure repeats at every individual hole until the round is finished. Characteristically is, that the American Foursomes can either be played in stroke play or in match play format. As the golfer Dick Chapman probably invented the game at the Pinehurst Resort the variation is also known as Chapman System or Pinehurst.

Angle of approach (or attack):  A term that describes the relative angle which the clubhead approaches the ball at impact which, in turn, helps determine the distance and trajectory which the ball travels. (He hit the ball with a sharply descending angle of attack, which caused the ball to fly high enough to carry over the tall trees).

Angle of approach/angle of attack: The Angle of attack is the term that describes the angle, at which the club head strokes the ball. This angle has also impact in the trajectory which the ball will travel.

Appearance fee: Pro-Golfplayers receive the so-called appearance fees or alternatively appearance money. That is money the player gains for only playing at the tournament. Even if he misses the finish in the tournament, he earns the appearance fee in any case.

Appearances: One side bet in golf is called Appearances. In there the person who tees off first on a hole has won the bet. It is called having the honor to be allowed to tee off first. At the first teeing ground the order of playing is randomly determined, afterwards the golfer who has had the lowest score at the previous hole is allowed to tee off first on the next hole. So each golfer who has the honors gains one point. The bet is also called honors.

Approach:  A shot hit towards the green (His approach shot to the 17th hole came up short of the green) or towards the hole (Sam Snead was a great approach putter). WATCH

Approach course: In golf the Approach Course is a special golf course for at most par-3 distances or shorter, but not any holes with longer distances. Usually the golf player first pitches and afterwards putts the golf ball, because the distances are quite short. Following to that style of hitting the golf ball, another expression for those golf courses is pitch-and-putt course.

Approach shot: An Approach or Approach Shot is a shot, with which the player intends to play the golfball towards the green.

Approach wedge: The club, with which the player shots the Approach is called Approach Wedge. Other names are gap wedge, a-wedge or attack wedge.

Apron: The closely cut area just around the edge of the green. Often referred to as the “Fringe”.

Arizona shuffle: In golf the Arizona Shuffle is a special version of playing golf. Firstly the game can be played in a team with three or four persons as a Stroke play, mainly in the Stableford system, and it depends where it is played, but in variation in the Arizona Shuffle a varying number of team members' scores is used on each hole. The game can be played in different ways, for example that on par 3-holes the team score is out of one low ball, on par-4 holes there are two low balls combined for the team score, whereas in par-5 holes the three low balls are for the team scores. As the “Arizona Shuffle” can be individually modified, there exist some other variations of playing it.

Army golf: In golf the expression army golf is telling something about the playing style of an golfer. If a player hits the ball all over the golf course in many different directions it is called army golf.

Arnies: A special side bet in golf is named after Arnold Palmer, so it is called Arnies. In there the golfplayer wins the hole, when he makes par without having been on the fairway before. The bet is about getting oneself out of trouble, because Arnold Palmer was a chief in this category it is named after him. If golfers want to play Arnies in a round, the amount of the bet should be set beforehand.

Arnold palmer award: In golf there are three different trophies or awards named after Arnold Palmer. One of it is the award for the PGA Tour and one on the Champions Tour. Both of them go to the leading money winners. The third award is presented in collegiate golf at the National Coaches Association of America men's golf championships. In there the medalists of all levels win the award.

Artisan: An Artisan is a special class of membership. The members have limited rights but therefore low costs. In previous times the British golf clubs often had artisan membership out of the working classes. They were for example not allowed to enter the clubhouse or vote the club management, they also needed to play golf in separate competitions. Some Artisan memberships even survived until now.

Attack wedge: The club, with which the player shots the Approach is called Attack Wedge. Other names are gap wedge, a-wedge or approach wedge.

Attend (the flag-stick): A golfer attends the flag-stick, when he removes and holds it for another player, so that the other one can hole the ball.

Augusta national golf club: The Augusta National Golf Club is one of the most famous golf clubs all over the world. At this golf course the well-known Major The Masters Tournament takes place. The golf club has extremely hard member restrictions. People speculate that the rangefee costs about 25.000 to 50.000 Dollar per year. The club doesn't accept any kind of application, it recruits members by sending them an invoice without any comment. Since 2012 women are also allowed to play at the golf course.

Austin: If a ball lands off the green but on an imaginary line which faces the flag, it is an Austin. Thereby it does not make any difference how far the ball is away from the hole as long as it still lands on that line.

Authorised: An Authorised golfer is one, that is part of the Royal and Ancient Golf Club St. Andrews, that supervises golf in Europe, Asia and the Commonwealth.

Auto win: A special golf game variation in golf is called Auto Win. It can be played in a group of golfers, with two, three or four members. Auto Win can either be played as a betting game or for pleasure. Characteristically for this golf version is, that if a player chips-in from off the green, holes-out from a sand bunker or sticks an approach shot inside the pin from 150 yards out or more (or on a par-3 hole) he automatically won the hole. Because of this automatic-effect the game is called Auto Win. At the end of a round the golfer who won the most holes, is the winner of the match.

Away: The player whose ball is the furthest away from the hole is away. This golfer is normally also allowed to play first.

A-wedge: The club, with which the player shots the Approach is called A-Wedge. Other names are gap wedge, approach wedge or attack wedge.

Back door: The back side of a hole is the one, that is the farthermost of the player's position. If the player putts the ball and it holes by going around the lip of the cup and as a result drops from the back side, this manner is called back door.

Back in the stance: Back in Stance is a special version of the golf-adress. At this version, the ball lies closer to the rear foot, so consequently further away from the hole. This is very useful for shorter shots, but the other way round is advantageous for long strokes.

Back nine: In an 18-hole course the last nine holes a golfer plays are called back nine, back side or last nine. Most of the time the round starts at hole one, so the back nine are the holes 10-18, but sometimes the round starts somewhere else, then the back nine are the holes from 1-9. That is the opposite to the first nine holes, so usually from 1-9, those are called front nine.

Back side: In an 18-hole course the holes 10-18 are called back side, back nine, in or last nine. That is the opposite to the first nine holes, so from 1-9, those are called front nine.

Back tees: On the teeing ground of a golf course, there are often various sets of tees provided. Mostly there are three sets, which are either differenced by colors or by names forward, middle, back. The back tees are the most rearward set of tees, whereas the forward tees are in the forefront. Good golfers usually play the golf course from the back tees on each teeing ground, because with those they can play the maximum yardage.

Backspin: This is a reverse spin, which causes the ball to stop very quickly on the green.

Backswing:  The motion that involves the club and every element of the body in taking the club away from the ball and setting it in position at the top of the backswing from which the club can be delivered to the ball at impact. (John Daly has an unusually long backswing that causes the club to go past parallel at the top of the swing). Tips

Backweight: On purpose of changing the whole weight, any technical qualities of the club head or the swingweight, a so called backweight is added to do so. The backweight got his name because it distributes the weight to the rear of the clubhead. The backweight is used to influence the center of gravity or heightens the moment of interia.

Baffy/baffie: A baffie or baffy is a special golf club with a wooden shaft. Before the 20th century it had much use, but it is meanwhile antiquated and not often appropriated any more. Its characteristics are comparable with a 4-wood club of these days.

Bag: The Bag is also called Golfbag. In there golfers can transport their whole equipment over the golf course, like for example his golf clubs, the ball mark repair tool, golf balls or even drinks.

Bag raid: Another version of playing golf is the bag raid. In there two golfers play a matchplay game. The special feature in this version is, that the agreed upon amount for each hole is to remove a golf club of the opponent and that the loser of a hole is allowed to remove the club from the winner's bag. Before teeing off, the two sides can agree on removing every club instead of the putter. This game variation can synonymously be called Pick Up Sticks.

Bag-tag: The Bag Tag is kind of a confirmation for everybody to see, in what team the player is a full member. It is usually fixed at the bag and shows especially the golf club and the name of the golfer.

Bail out: A shot played to the “safe” part of the course. For example if the flag is right next to the water and the golfer intentionally shoots away from the flag to avoid the water

Bail-out-area: A landing area on the golf course, that offers a save alternative to players who don't want to try the risky way of playing the hole, is called bail-out-area.

Balance:  The proper distribution of weight both at address and throughout the swing. (Tom Watson's swing has always been characterized by perfect balance).

Balance point: The balance point is the main physical emphasis of the golf club. In the past, it was exactly centered, but nowadays it is proofed, that the shot is more precisely, the closer it is placed at the club head. For that reason, depending on the manufacturer, there are meanwhile different emphases, so that it is the players choice which one he likes the best.

Balata:  A rubber-like substance used as a cover material for golf balls. Pure balata is rarely, if ever, used today. Instead, manufacturers use blends or synthetic material. Many players prefer balata or balata-like covers because it provides a softer feel. And can provide increased spin. (Most of the players in the championship played with balata-covered balls).

Ball: Golf balls are accurately defined balls beginning from special material or a dimple cover up to exactly defined dimensions. Usually they are white colored. A golf ball should never be heavier than 45.93 gramme and shouldn't be smaller than 42,67 mm. Furthermore the ball compression is precisely set. That means it lays inbetween a spectrum of soft (80-90) until 110 which is very hard. A golf player can chose the compression which is the best for his style of playing golf. Another characteristic feature of golf balls is that if they are marked with one or more X. That means the balls may be incorrectly produced or it's just an overproduction. For that reason it is not allowed to play balls with an X at golf tournaments. A golf ball can also have different states. For example is the ball a ball in play from teeing off until it is holed.

Ball in play: Ball in Play is an expression for the status of a golf ball. If it is in play, it defines the ball from the first stroke from the teeing ground until it is holed out.

Ball in pocket: The ball mode ball in pocket describes the situation of a golfer who picked up his golf ball and doesn't want to go forward and complete the hole. He puts the ball in his pocket and thereby shows everybody that he won't play this hole any more.

Ball mark: The term ball mark is used for hollows at the putting green indebted by golf balls which landed to sudden from great height. Ballmarks should be repaired with special “ballmark tools” directly after the shot, so that following balls can not be distracted by the hollow. A synonym is pitch mark.

Ball marker: A token or small coin which is placed directly just behind the ball in order to mark the position of the ball on the green. This is usually done to allow another player who is farther away to putt without hitting any other balls.

Ball retriever: A long pole with a scoop on the end of it used to get balls out of water hazards.

Ball washer: Come on, this one is self explanatory. These are found all over the golf course usually at the tee boxes. They clean and wash your ball.

Ballmark tool: Ballmark tools are used to repair ball marks or pitch marks at the putting green. It is basically a little two-pronged tool, made out of plastic or metal. As it is part of the etiquette of playing golf to repair its ball marks, every golfer should have a ballmark tool.

Ballooning: If the golfer mis-hit the golf ball and it went to high, but didn't fly far enough, golfers call that effect ballooning. One reason for that can for example be, that the ball was hit too far down, so the backspin is strengthened and the ball again loses distance. The wind can also be an reinforcing factor for ballooning.

Ballstriking: Ballstriking is the term for a strong full swing. A ballstriker is the golfer who performs the swing. Ballstriking implements, that a golfer is not only very gifted at the full swing, but also the commander of the golf ball, so the ball makes whatever he wants him to.

Banana ball: A slice that curves in a banana like shape from left to right (for right-handed golfers).

Bandit: A bandit is a golf player who cheats in playing golf. The bandit pretends to have a higher handicap or is a better golfer than he confesses. As a result he has higher possibility to win at big tournaments with net rating. Sometimes the bandit is also called sandbagger or hustler.

Bare lie: Golfers call it bare lie, when the ball lies completely on hard ground, so that there is no grass under it. Sometimes golfers practice on purpose at hard mats, so at the bare lie.

Barky/barkie: Barky as term is used, if a golfer has hit a tree but nevertheless completes the hole with par. This process can also be the barkie side bet. In there, the golfers of the flight define the worth of a barky before playing. Occasionally the barky is also known as woodies or seve's.

Barnes wallis: One less usual achievement during the game is called barnes wallis in the United Kingdom. The term describes a situation, in which the golf ball landed in the water of a hazard, but skips back to the ground, thus directly back into the play. This achievement is also known as bonito.

Barranca: In golf, a barranca is located at the golf course. Its visual appearance is a dry gully or ravine filled with rocks, because normally a barranca is to play as a hazard. How to play it concretely is defined by the local rules of the golf course.

Baseball grip:  A grip in which all ten fingers are placed on the grip of the club. (Bob Rosburg was a very successful player who used a baseball grip). Tips on grips

Baseball-grip: A special kind of gripping the golf club is named the baseball grip. Thereby all ten fingers hold the club without overlapping or interlocking. A disadvantage can be, that there is the possibility that the golfer will perform imprecisly. This grip is also known as full finger grip or ten finger grip.

Battlefield promotion: The expression battlefield promotion is used in professional golf, when a golfer played the Web.com Tour and directly rises to the PGA Tour. So in fact the battlefield promotion describes, when a golf player wins three times in one season on the Web.com Tour. Afterwards, with that battlefield promotion the golfer can immediately compete at the PGA Tour. Other terms for battlefield promotion are three-win promotion or three victory promotion.

Beach: An expression for sandtrap. (i.e. I’m in the beach)

Beat the worst: Another special variation of golf is Beat the Worst. This variation is also suitable for a group of three or four golfers. Another name for this game is on the spot, because the objective is, that one golfer on each hole is on the spot and therefore has to beat the worst score of the other golf players in his flight. The flight rotates on being the on the spot player. On each hole every golfer plays and afterwards the scores were compared, whether the on the spot player has beaten the worst other player.

Belly putter: Basically the Belly Putter is a putter with a long shaft. The name is characteristically for its function

Below the hole: A position, where the next putt of the golfer will be uphill to the hole, is called below the hole. This occurs, if a hole is in a position where the green slopes. In general it is desired to putt the ball below the hole, because it is much easier and better to judge to putt uphill, than downhill.

Ben hogan award: There are two ben hogan awards. One of them is a male player of the year award. Namely a special one, because it goes to the best collegiate male golfer in the United States. It is presented by the Golf Coaches Association of America and the Colonial Country Club. And considers college tournaments as well as other amateur tournament results. The other “ben hogan award” is presented to golfers who overcame a serious illness, physical handicap or accident but still continuous playing. Thereby the Golf Writers Association of America as organizer wants to appreciate their power of moving forward.

Ben hogan tour: Ben Hogan Tour was the original name of the Web.com Tour. It started with this name, because the Ben Hogan Company was the biggest sponsor in the first three seasons. As afterwards other companies took over the position of being fist title sponsor, the name changed a few times until the meanwhile asserted name Web.com Tour.

Bend point: Bend point is the name of one part of the golf club. More specified it's one point at the shaft of the golf club, at which the golf club bends itself the most. This bending also influences the flight characteristics of the golf ball after the impact. Generally is proved, that in case the bend point is situated nearer to the clubhead, the ball flies higher. Oppositely, if it is further away from the clubhead, the golf ball flies flatter. But normally the bend point has not that much influence, that it can decide about a good or a bad game. After an analysis of the golf swing, a golf player can decide about a specific flex point for his golf clubs. Alternatively the terms flex point or kickpoint can also be used for the bend point.

Bending: One part of the fitting of golf clubs is the so-called bending. In this process with aid of a special machine the club head gets bended individually however it fits the best for the playing style of the golf player. Changing the slope of the club head also modifies the impact behavior of the golf club.

Bent grass: Type of grass which is found in mostly in northern climates.

Bentgrass: Bentgrass is a special kind of turf. Its enormous advantage is, that it is super resistant of cold temperatures and therefore can be used especially in relatively cold regions. Characteristically for bent is that it has special thin blades that grow densely and can be extremely closely mown. That's the reason for its popularity at putting greens. A negative effect is that Bentgrass can not handle high temperatures, so it can't be used at golf courses in hotter areas.

Bermuda grass: Now think about this one for just a minute. This is a type of grass found mostly in southern climates, as it is tougher and more resilient to harsh sunlight. Kind of like you would find in… that’s right Bermuda! You are a genius!

Best at something: Best at something is a variation of golf. It is a betting game which can be played in combination with any other variation of golf in which every golfer plays with his or her own golf ball. Each player counts his or her strokes and points. Throughout the round points are distributed or subtracted for different things. The golf player with the most points at the end of the round has won the bet. It can be declared that woods needs to be used for getting a point, but that can vary individually. But whats usually obligatory is, that for getting one point, one needs to make a fairway hit or a one putt green, so a green in regulation. Whereas one point is subtracted if a golfer needs three putts more on the green, hits a hazard, lost a ball or gets out of bounds. Those are normally the main guidelines, but a flight can vary those however they want.

Best ball: One of the most famous variations of golf is Best Ball. In there normally two teams with two golf players in each (but it can also be varied to three or four person teams) play against each other. There is one golf ball for each player with which he or she plays throughout the game of golf. The speciality is, that the best ball of the team counts, thus the lowest score of the team, whereas the other scores simply get deleted. Usually Best Ball is played as stroke play or as matchplay. Additionally it is also known as “four ball” or better ball.

Best holes: The name of a side betting game which is usually played during the round is best holes. Each golf player who takes part in best holes needs to put an agreed-upon amount in the pot, before the round starts. Then each player has to circle his three favorite holes at the scorecard, where he thinks he'll score best. The scores are considered in relation to par, so not only the total strokes. At the end of a round, the best score wins the bet and therefore the pot. This game variation is also known as Favorite Holes.

Best nines: The betting game Best Nines basically consists of tree different rounds

Better ball: The very popular variation of golf called Better Ball, works usually with two teams with two golf players in each which play against each other. In this variation there are also three or four persons allowed to play in one team. In fact every player plays with his own golf ball throughout the game. The special feature is, that the lowest score of the team counts, and the other scores don't. In general better ball is either played as stroke play or as match play. The variation of golf is also known as best ball or four ball.

Biarritz green: The biarritz is a putting green in which a swale or gully bisects the middle. It can either be from side-to-side or from front to back, but the big challenge is normally, that the hole is on one side of the swale whereas the ball sits on the other side and then needs to go down and up in the swale to reach the hole. For that the golfer needs to do a long putt. A golf hole which contains a biarritz is often called biarritz hole and originally the name is caused by the Biarritz Golf Club – the golf course where the first biarritz became popular.

Big bertha: Big Bertha is a driver of the brand Callaway Golf. Unique about that driver is the big club head, for that reason it is called big bertha. At first, the driver was produced out of stainless steel, meanwhile it is out of titanium.

Big dog: In general, the driver is the biggest golf club. Colloquially the driver is also called Big Dog. This term has its origin in a quotation from Kevin Costner. Golfers should not generally use this expression, but use it in special cases of using the driver. An example for that could be to play with the driver (or in this case the big dog) in order to catch up at a Match Play.

Bigga: BIGGA is shorthand for British and International Golf Greenkeepers Association. Basically the association represents the interests of greenkeepers. Furthermore it processes and improves the profession greenkeeping. The equivalent in the USA is called GCSAA.

Bingo bango bongo: A variation of golf is called Bingo Bango Bongo. In there, the golfers' handicap is not respected, because the objectiv is, that the golf players play in the given order and be the first of something. Additionally there is a special scoring system, which can only differ at par-3-holes. So the golfer gains one point, if his golf ball reaches the green as first ball (bingo), if his ball is nearest to the pin (bango), or if his golf ball holes out as first of the whole flight (bongo).

Birdie: A score of 1 under par for a hole. (i.e. a score of 3 on a par 4 hole)

Bisque: An extraordinary golf competition is named bisque. In this version, the golfer determined by himself, at which hole he wants to use handicap strokes, so not in the conventional way that the handicap strokes are awarded with regard to the ranking of the holes at the golf course. In bisque, the player decides by himself and can use up to two handicap strokes for one hole. The characteristic is, that the golfer needs to announce it before the shot. So before he plays the hole he needs to tell all the other players, that he wants to use handicap strokes at that hole, and of course also how many he wants to use there.

Bisque par: Bisque Par is a different version of playing golf. It is basically similar to Match Play vs. Par, because in there, the objective is to beat Par on each hole. So in the score card the coding is the following one

Bisque stroke: The Bisque Stroke is an illegal gifted stroke. So one golf player can present a so-called Bisque Stroke to another one. For the golfer who received the shot, it counts like a handicap stroke, but it's up to him where he wants to use it. The only requirement he needs to fulfill is, that he has to determine before the match begins at which hole he wants to use the Bisque Stroke.

Bite: A term used for the action of the backspin on the ball stopping it very quickly on the green.

Blade: A Blade is on the one hand side a special kind of iron. It has a thin topline but a smooth, full back. In the past all iron heads were forged and therefore known as blades. Furthermore it has a smaller sweet spot, because its weighting is concentrated behind the clubface center. Another characteristic of blades is, that they are usually forged and some golf players are convinced that with help of a blade they can more easily work the ball and feel softer at impact. On the other hand Blade also describes a putter, which has a thin clubface without flange, but which is heel-weightened and heel-shafted.

Bladed shot:  Often referred to as a "skulled" shot, it occurs when the top half of the ball is struck with the bottom portion of an iron, resulting a low-running shot. (She bladed her approach shot but the ball ran onto the green and set up her putt for a birdie.)

Blast out: Blast, Blast shot or Blast out refers to a golf shot. In fact it is a golf shot which is played out of the bunker if for example a golf ball has settled down into the sand. Within this stroke a lot of sand flies out of the bunker and for that reason the special shot is called Blast.

Blind bogey: Blind Bogey refers to a variation of different things in golf sport. On the one hand side, a Blind Bogey can be an 18 hole stroke play, in which the director selects a random score in the end, this score does not have to be one that actually was played, because the winner of the round is the golfer whose score is the closest to the randomly selected one. Another definition of Blind Bogey is, that at the beginning of a tournament all golfers can chose a handicap for themselves and tell it to the guard. Objective is, that the handicap helps the golf player to achieve a total net score in the 70s in the end. Finally the director choses a random number in the 70s and whose net score is the closest to this number wins the tournament. Additionally a different version of Blind Bogey is that at first every golfer in an tournament completes his round, afterwards the director choses six random holes and throw them out. The score composes out of the remaining 12 holes. The golfer with the lowest score wins the game. As it depends from golf club to golf club which blind bogey version is used there, it is the best to simply ask about the individual rules before playing.

Blind hole: The Blind Hole is a term which is used if a golf player strokes without seeing the hole, because he can't see the hole or the flagstick. Before he strokes he can inform himself about the exact position and eventual hazards at the signs in the tee off area, but anyways blind holes are very challenging to play because the golfer can't exactly see how fast his golf ball goes to the hole. Blind Hole is additionally also a variation of golf, in which the golf players play an 18 hole round, but after the game only nine holes count and the golf players don't know which nine count.

Blind nine: Blind Nine is another variation of playing golf. In there, golf players play a 18 hole round and after the game the directors decide nine holes that count – which holes is not clear beforehand.

Blind shot: The term Blind Shot describes a hole, which the golfers are not able to see when they stroke. A golf player can inform himself in yardage books or at the signs in the tee off area about eventual hazards and also about the exact position of the hole. A Blind Shot is often built on purpose at the golf course to challenge the golfers, but it can also happen accidentally, when a golfer earlier shot bad and afterwards can't see the hole anymore. Another designation for Blind Shot is Blind Hole or only Blind.

Block:  A swing in which the rotation of the forearms is delayed or prevented throughout the hitting area, generally producing a shot that flies to the right of the target. (With a pond guarding the left side of the green. Ernie Els blocked his approach shot to the right of the flag).

Blocks: Blocks is a term, which refers to two objects at the teeing area

Bloodsomes: The bloodsomes is one variation of the match play. There are two teams playing against each other. Every golf player tees off and the other team can decide, with which golf ball they have to move forward in alternate shot manner. At every hole a new decision is required, and the golfer whose shot was taken has to tee off first at the following hole.

Blue monster: Blue Monster is one of the most famous golf courses of the world, situated in Miami. Its name is the result out of the high frequency of water hazards at this golf course.

Blue tees: The blue tees is the expression for the rearmost tees in a tee box. Usually there are three or more tee boxes at each hole. In the past there has been three tee boxes which were also colored, the red tees were the forward ones, the white ones the middle tees and the blue tees the back tees. Nowadays this color-variation is not used any more, because there are even more tees per hole. The Blue Tees are also called back tees or championship tees.

Bo derek: The term Bo Derek in golf is used, if a golfer plays a score of 10 on any golf hole. The term is originally out of the movie 10, in Dudley Moore's desire was Bo Derek. But a 10 in golf is normally nobody's goal.

Bobbing:  The act of raising and lowering (or lowering and raising) the swing center in the course of the swing. (Because of an inconsistent knee flex in her swing, her bobbing led to inconsistent ball striking).

Bogey:  A score of one over par on a hole. (The bogey on 18 cost him the championship).

Bogey golfer: A bogey golfer is one who constantly scores bogeys at each or nearly each hole. In total a “bogey golfer” then has an average score around 90. In the USGA Handicap index, the term has an important meaning concerning the handicap system

Bogey rating: Bogey rating is basically the measurement of a golf course's degree of difficulty for average golfers. This in turn is essential for the USGA Handicap System.

Bonito: If a golf ball landed in a water hazard but directly skips out and therefore is immediately back in the play, this is usually called bonito. The expression probably has its origin in Australia. In the UK the situation is more commonly described by the term barnes wallis.

Bore-through: Bore-Through is an expression concerning the golf clubs. It is a special golf club, in which the shaft goes into or through the clubhead to the sole of it. In fact, this design saves some weight and lowers the center of gravity. Additionally it can also lower the launch angle and can make the shaft play stiffer. But to re-shaft the bore-through clubs is usually very difficult.

Borrow:  The amount of break a player allows for when hitting a breaking putt. (One of the confusing factors for young players at Augusta National is learning how much they have to borrow on their putts).

Bounce: The measurement of the angle from the front edge of a club's sole to the point on the sole, which rests on the ground at the address is called bounce. It is measured in degrees and the amount of bounce depends on the conditions. For playing golf courses with soft sand, more bounce is needed, but the other way round, if there is harder sand, the golfer needs less bounce. And also for example to play from the fairway there is less bounce needed.

Bounce back: If a golf player scored a birdie or something better on one hole and at the next hole scored a bogey or even something worse, this succession is called bounce back.

Bowed:  The position of the wrists at the top of the backswing in which the top wrist is bent slightly inward. (For many years, Tom Weiskopf had a bowed wrist at the top of his backswing).

Bowmaker: A bowmaker or bowmaker tournament is very common in the U.K. . The tournament is usually a team event in which the team members play with their own golf balls and a certain amount of the scores counts on the hole. So there are different variations of counting the scores per hole. One of it is for example to have teams with four members in each and count the two lowest scores per hole. The most common variation of scoring the bowmaker is Stableford.

Bramble: The Bramble is similar to the Scramble and in there the members of the team at first tee off and then the best drive is selected. The next stroke of members is from the location of the selected best drive, but all players from there on play with there own golf ball until each has holed out. So in the end there are four individual scores. In the end there are different variations of selecting the team score. One of it is, if the lowest ball counts as team score, or the sum of the two lowest counts. The Bramble is also known as Shamble.

Brassie: A further special golf club was called Brassie. It was a wood with a brass plate at the sole and a big loft. The name brassie is a derivation of the brass at the sole. Inbetween 1880 and 1890 the term was also for other woods with big loft. It is a close equivalent to the todays 2-woods. As the Brassie was especially for amateur golfers extremely hard to play, it is meanwhile replaced by a good driver.

Break:  The amount a putt will curve to the side because of the slope, grain and wind that affect the movement of the ball. (The swale in the middle of the green produced a tremendous break on Palmer's putt). Tip

Breaky: If a putting line has more than one break, and the golf ball therefore can't be putt at an ideal putting line, one calls it breaky. If the whole green has more inclinations, the golfers also generally call the whole green breaky. Usually golfers need strokes over par, because even experienced golf players also need a little of luck for holing out with par.

Bridge: Bridge is an unofficially variation of playing golf. In general it can be played by two golf players or two teams with two golfers in each against each other. The most common way is to play bridge in teams. For every hole, there is a set amount of points and money agreed before the start of the round. And before the start it is also agreed whether the game should be played net or gross. At the tee box, before teeing of, one team bids on the number of strokes which they think they'll need. The other team has the options to take the bet, take the bet and double the points at the hole or to bid lower. If the bet is bid lower, the other team can again lower it. If the bet is taken and doubled, the other team can also double back. But if the teams play with money it is important to be careful by doubling because it can add up quickly. It is determined randomly which team starts bidding, but an important fact is, that at the following hole the team that lost the previous one is allowed to open the bidding there.

British ball: The British Ball was a minimum size of golf balls which was legal by the R&A until 1990. But as the ball was illegal under the rules of the USGA, the term British ball or British Open ball was more common in the USA, whereas the golf ball was called small ball by British golf players. The USGA had a different small ball, the American Ball, which differentiated because it was a tiny bit larger than the British ball. On weight they were both the same, and on the size the British ball had 1.62 inches, whereas the American ball had 1.68 inches. In 1990 there was one small ball standardized. It has 1.68 inches now, and therefore the small ball is meanwhile nothing more than history.

Broomstick-putter: The broomstick putter received its name because it has a very long shaft. It usually measures 50 inches or even more. Originally the upper end is anchored at the chin, sternum or chest of the golf player during his stroke. Golfers who struggle with yips often prefer the broomstick putter, because by anchoring the golfer gets more stability. But according to controversial discussions about the anchoring, a rule change outlaws the anchoring from January the 1, 2016 on. An additional designation for that type of putter is long putter.

Bubbas: A particular side bet in golf is known as Bubbas. Bubba Watson is the eponym for the side bet, because of his powerful drives. Thus the focus of the side bet lies on powerful drives and the winner of each hole is the golfer with the longest drive. Prior to the game the golfers should determine whether they play Bubbas and clarify which amount each victory has. Additionally they should specify how they define the bet, because they can obviously determine individual regulations. A common variation is for example, that in order to win, it is obligatory, that the longest drive reaches the fairway and in case no golfer manages this, the bet is carried over to the next hole. At the next hole the money values are added up, thus the hole has a double amount. The bet is more commonly known as Nicklauses and additional synonyms are Tigers or Dalys.

Buggy: The Buggy in golf is a device which transports a golfer's bag of clubs. The Buggy can be a passenger golf cart, in which a golf player is allowed to drive over the golf course. But on the other hand side it can also be a walking cart or push cart. The Buggy is called buggy in Europe and Australia, but in most of the other parts in the world it is called push cart.

Bulge: The term bulge refers to the clubface of a wood. As woods are a little bit curved inside themselves, they are curved from side to side, and from top to the bottom. The slight curve from side to side of the clubface is called bulge.

Bullarding: Bullarding is the term used for golf players who constantly play above their regular handicap and fail regularly in achieving anything in a competition. Bullarding is basically the opposite of sandbagging.

Bump-and-run: The bump and run is a special shot in golf. In general it is an approach shot to the green, the approach shot is very short and flat. Usually it is a chip shot and the bump and run is played more along the ground. The shot is common at left courses and dry&windy locations, so always if the greens and fairways are harder. The shot is also called Chip and Run.

Bunker:  A hollow comprised of sand or grass or both that exists as an obstacle and, in some cases, a hazard. (The greens at Winged Foot were protected by deep bunkers). Tip

Bunker shot: A Bunker Shot is the stroke which is played out of the bunker.

Buried elephant: The term buried elephant in golf refers to a large mound or hump at the surface of the putting green.

Buried lie: TThe term buried lie refers to a situation, in which the golf ball caused a pitch mark during his landing and instantly comes to rest in this ball mark. It often occurs in bunkers or soft turf and in case it happens in a bunker, the buried lie is also called fried egg. Other synonyms for the buried lie are plugged lie or plugged ball.

Burn: A small river, stream or creek through the golf course is called burn. The Burn is a water hazard but the term is mostly used in Great Britain, but not that often in the USA.

Buy.Com tour: For three seasons, from 2000 until 2002, the Web.com Tour was called Buy.com Tour. As Buy.com was the biggest sponsor in this time, the tour was named after it. In 2003 the tour got renamed in Nationwide Tour and since June 2012, it is called Web.com Tour.

Buzzard: Another name for the double bogey is buzzard. It is a score with two shots over par. In the past, so in the early parts of the 20th century, the term was commonly used, whereas today buzzard is not any more part of the main vocabulary of modern golf.

Bye: If a match finished early, because one player or one team won by a large margin, the golf players can decide to play the remaining holes anyways. The game of those last holes is called bye. Normally the loser of the bye has to buy the first drinks in the clubhouse after finishing.

Byron nelson award: The Byron Nelson Award is on the one hand side the trophy presented by the winner of the PGA Tour, and on the other hand side the one presented to the lowest scorer of the Champions Tour.

C.O.D.: C.O.D. is the abbreviation for Cart, Opposites, DriversCart, so at the first six holes, the golfers who share the cart are partners. The holes 7-12 are called Opposites, so in there, the driver of one cart plays in a team with the passenger of the other cart. As the name of the third partnership, so the holes from 13-18, is Drivers, obviously the drivers play together in one team and the passengers built the other team. This variation of the game is also commonly known as Round Robin.

Cabbage: The deep or thick vegetation or rough outside the fairway is called cabbage. If a golf ball landed in the cabbage it is very hard to play it because the turf is too high to play properly.

Caddie:  A person hired to carry clubs and provide other assistance. (A good caddie can be worth several strokes a round).

Calcutta:  An auction in which people bid on players or teams in a tournament. (For many years, Calcuttas were a regular event at many popular tournaments).

Call up: If one flight reached the green, it is common to call up for the next flight at some golf courses. Thereby the next flight doesn't have to wait until the front flight finished the hole. The front flight can also call up the rear flight, if they want them to play through. A synonym for call up is wave up.

Callaway system: The Callaway System or Callaway Scoring System is a special system of scoring the handicap. This system is usually used at events where the golfers don't have handicap indexes. It only considers the score of the golfer in combination with a special chart.

Camber: Camber is an expression concerning the soles of the golf clubs and in principle it describes their curvature. As there are the different curvatures, side-to-side and front-to-back, the camber usually describes both. But usually the clubfitting only refers to the front-to-back camber. Out of more camber on the rear part of the sole results less bounce angle. If the sole is cambered, the golf club moves more smoothly at the turf. So in general a cambered sole makes the golf club more playable.

Cambered:  Sole A rounding of the sole of the club to reduce drag. A four-way cambered sole is one that is rounded at every edge of a wood. (The 5-wood had a cambered sole to help it slide through the deep rough).

Canadian foursome: In an Canadian Foursome there are two teams with two golfers in each team. The two persons in a team both tee off. Afterwards the best ball is selected and both play in alternate shot style with this ball until it is holed out. This process is repeated for the whole round at each hole. Further designations for this golf format are Scotch Foursomes, Modified Pinehurst or Greensomes.

Cape hole: Cape hole is the term for a hole on a golf course which needs to be played around a large, lateral hazard. The risky part out of it is the tee shot. Most of the time the hazard is a water hazard which extends the entire length of the hole.

Captain's choice: The Captain's Choice is a synonym for Scramble. In there, two teams with two players in each team play against each other. At first, every player tees off, afterwards the team decides together which golf ball will be the ball in play, but in Captain's Choice the Captain has the last choice in every case. This golf ball will be marked with a ball mark and every player of the team plays with his own golf ball from this position. It continuous in this process until the golf ball is holed out. The procedure is repeated at every hole.

Captain's pick: If a golfer failed to meet the criteria required for the automatic membership on a team, the team's captain can add the golf player to his team. This privilege of the captain is called Captain's Pick, but also known as Captain's selection or wildcard.

Carry:  The distance a ball will fly in the air, usually to carry a hazard or safely reach a target. (Many of the holes at Pine Valley require a substantial carry over waste areas).

Carryover :  When a hole is tied in a match and the bet is carried over to the next hole. (He won the 10th hole as well as the carryover).

Cart : A Cart or Golf Cart is a vehicle to transport golf players together with their equipment from one hole to another one over the golf course. The cart can be an electrical or gas-powered vehicle with four wheels. On the other hand side it can also be a hand-pulled vehicle with two wheels or a hand-pushed one with three wheels. The last two presented vehicles can also be bought in powered versions which are controlled by a remote.

Cart fee : In general a Cart Fee is the amount a golf course requests for using a golf cart. There exists no fix amount, it varies from golf course to golf course. Additionally some the golf courses differentiate whether the golfer plays nine holes or the full round with 18 holes and also how many riders use the cart.

Cart jockey : The Cart Jockey is a person who looks after the golf carts of the golf course. Not only servicing the carts, but also assisting customers with the cart service. The duties of a cart jockey are for example to drive a cart out of the parking lot, to clean up the empty golf carts or to ferry the golf players and their bags from the parking lot to the clubhouse.

Cart path : The Cart Path is the route around a golf course which the golf carts should follow. At most of the golf courses a cart path is paved, and usually it is not allowed to drive the golf cart off the path, and it depends on the rules of the golf course, but sometimes it is also allowed to drive off the path.

Cart path only : Cart Path Only is a condition for golfers, which can exist all the time at a golf course, but it can also be a temporal limitation for example after rain in order to protect the turf. In any case, if there is the condition cart path only, the golfers are not allowed to drive their carts anywhere else than at the cart path.

Carve : The term carve was often used in the past to describe a shot which gets shaped and bended in order to fit the hole's terrain. The expression can also be applied if the golf ball needs to curve around anything.

Casting :  An uncocking of the wrists prematurely on the downswing, resulting in a loss of power and control. Also known as "hitting from the top." (Smith had a tendency to swing at and not through the ball, which caused him to cast the club from the top of the swing).

Casting from the top : If a golf player prematurely releases his wrists at the downswing, this process is called casting, early hit or hitting from the top. The result is, that the golfer loses power and control.

Casual water : No this is not water dressed in blue jeans and T-shirt but rather any temporary puddles of water on the course which are not supposed to be there, like say for instance after a rainstorm. There is no penalty for a player to move his ball out of casual water.

Cat box : As a bunker with its litter reminds on a cat box, it became a vernacular term for bunker. Additionally kitty litter has the same meaning.

Cavity back : The Cavity Back is a special construction of golf clubs. Those are irons, in which the mass is mostly shifted to the edge of the clubhead, and the back of the clubhead has been hollowed out, so that a cavity results. Therefore the Cavity Back received its name. Because of its special design, this type of irons forgives more mis-hits.

Cavity-back :  A type of iron in which a portion of the back of the clubhead is hollowed out and the weight distributed around the outside edges of the clubhead. (The cavity-back irons were far more forgiving than his old blades).

Cc/cubic centimeters : Cubic centimeters or the abbreviation cc are used to indicate the volume of a clubhead in golf. The greater the number is, the larger is the clubhead. The greater the clubhead of a golf club is, the larger is also the sweetspot and the more forgiving is the golf club. So a greater clubhead is easier to play than a smaller one.

Center cut : Basically, the term center cut has two different definitions in golf. On the one hand side it can be used in order to describe if the hole or the flagstick are located near or directly in the middle of the putting green. On the other hand the expression center cut is also used if shots travel down the middle. A center-cut putt is for instance when a putt falls into the middle of a cup.

Center of gravity :  That point in the human body, in the pelvic area, where the body's weight and mass are equally balanced. (Ian Woosnam has a lower center of gravity than the much-taller Nick Faldo).

Center of rotation :  The axis or swing center that the body winds and unwinds around during the swing. (A stable center of rotation is an important element is solid ball-striking).

Center shafted : The term center shafted describes the modality in which the shaft enters the clubhead of a putter. If the shaft is connected to the clubhead near the center, the putters are called center shafted. This variation of putters has always been legal in the USGA and the R&A, except from the years 1910-1951. Such a center shafted putter suits golf players who stand at adress with their eyes directly over the golf ball and don't use forward press.

Centrifugal force :  The action in a rotating body that tends to move mass away from the center. It is the force you feel in the downswing that pulls the clubhead outward and downward, extending the arms and encouraging to take a circular path. (Tiger Woods' swing creates powerful centrifugal force.

Championship : The Championships are tournaments which are officially accepted by the R&A. Those tournaments are regulated by a golfing authority.

Championship course : In the past, if a golf club had more than one golf courses, like for example one with nine holes and one with 18 holes, the championship course was the more challenging and in general better course and of course it needed to have 18 holes because it was used for championships. Nowadays the term became more or less a marketing expression, because it is often used to show the quality of a golf course, even if it is the only one of a golf club, thus just to make sure that it is also used for championships and convince golfers to play at this golf course.

Championship tees : The Championship Tees are the tees from which a golfer tees off at a championship. Those tee boxes are the rearmost at the golf course, so they are the ones with the longest distance to the hole. Thus if a golfer shots the whole round from the championship tees, he plays the course at the maximum length. The championship tees are also known as back tees.

Chapman system : The Chapman System is a golf variation named after the amateur golf player Dick Chapman who invented the game at the Pinehurst Resort golf course. For that reason it is sometimes also called Pinehurst. In this golf variation, there are two teams with two golfers in each. The game works like this

Characteristic time : The Characteristic time is a time, that is measured by the USGA and the R&A in order to find out, if the spring-like-effect of drivers is conforming with the limits within the Rules of Golf. So in fact it is the contact point of the clubface and the golf ball and this time is measured in microseconds. This springiness of the clubface is responsible how far the golf ball can fly. Until 2004, the USGA and the R&A tested the spring-like effect while measuring the coefficient of restitution. But in the early 2000s the R&A and the USGA had disagreements about what should be the limit of the coefficient of restitution, so they agreed on the measure method “characteristic time”.

Chicago : Chicago is a special golf tournament, in which the game starts with a negative amount of points. The amount is based on their handicap and golf players try to add positive points during the round by there strokes. During the round, the positive points are added at the basis, that bogeys are worth 1 point, pars are worth 2 points, birdies are worth 4 points, whereas a golfer who shot an eagle gets 8 points.

Chicken run : Another type of golf tournament is the so-called chicken run. This tournament takes place in the late afternoon, normally after a workday, and it has only 9-holes in length. The name has its origin therein, that chicken run tournaments are performed in the late afternoons in the summer months. Other terms for the chicken run are sundowner or twilight tournament.

Chicken stick : Basically, chicken stick is the slang term for the 3-iron golf club. This golf club is used, if a golfer doesn't want to risk anything, but plays with a safe club. The choice of the chicken stick is often the right decision, but sometimes the other golf players use the term derisively.

Chicken wing :  A swing flaw in which the lead elbow bends at an angle pointed away from the body, usually resulting in a blocked or pushed shot. (Once Jack's PGA Professional saw him, he knew the cause of Jack's loss of power was his chicken wing position at impact.)

Chili dip : The Chili Dip is an expression for a kind of mis-hit. It describes the situation when a golfer stuck his golf club behind the ball and thereby the club digs the turf but has no or only little contact with the golf ball itself. Therefore the golf ball doesn't fly very far, and the stroke is a mis-hit.

Chip and run :  A low-running shot played around the greens where the ball spends more time on the ground than in the air. (She saved par with a beautiful chip and run that ended inches from the hole).READ

Chip in : This happens when you hit a chip shot (see above) into the cup. (Note

Chip out : If a golf player brought himself into an uncomfortable situation, for example when he shot the golf ball in an area of trees or wood, he can extricate himself out of the trouble by hitting a relatively small chip shot, because a longer shot is needed but obstructed. This process is called chip out.

Chip shot : A short approach shot with a low trajectory usually hit from close to the green.

Chip/chip shot : A special shot in golf is called chip or chip shot. Golfers play this shot from close to the green. Within a chip shot, the golfer pops the golf ball into the air, afterwards the ball hits the ground and rolls forward. For playing a chip shot, a golf player usually uses a wedge, but he can use any golf club for shooting a chip. The difference to a pitch shot is, that a pitch shot normally has a higher trajectory and the shot lands closer to the pin, afterwards the golf ball rolls just a bit within a pitch shot. So usually chip shots are played from closer to the green, whereas pitch shots are played from farther off the green. Characteristic for chip shots is, that the golf ball rolls longer on the ground than it is in the air.

Chip-in : The Chip-In is a very desired form of the chip shot. Within that chip shot, the golf ball just holes out and don't needs to be putt again at the putting green, because the golfer chipped the ball into the hole. Professional golf players are often able to play a chip-in on purpose, but amongst amateur golfers it is a rather rare shot.

Chip-off : Within a chip-off, golfers challenge each other at a selected chip shot and see who went closer to the hole, in order to break a tie. A synonym for chip-off is a play-off.

Chippies : In general, a chippie is a side bet in golf. It is all about a chip-In, so when the golf ball is off the green and a golfer chips it with one shot into the hole. Usually, if golfers agreed on a chippie, they set an amount agreed upon. Golfers can make additional agreements like for instance how far the golf ball needs to be away from the hole.

Chipping iron : Golfers can generally use any golf club they want for chipping, but there are also special chipping irons. Golf players often use those chipping irons in the process of chipping the golf ball onto the green.

Choke : This word has two meanings. One is to grip lower on the club than normal (you may hear the term “choke down” on the club) The other definition in golf (and most other sports) means to collapse under pressure (i.e. he “choked” under the pressure of the Master’s).

Choke down :  The act of gripping down on the shaft, which is generally believed to provide greater control. (She choked down on a 7-iron and hit a beautiful pitch to save par).

Choke down/choke up : To Choke down or Choke up are terms that can be used in different meanings, but usually golfers use them in the same context and therefore they made them having the same meaning. The expressions are used if a golf player moves his hands closer to the bare shaft, so towards the bottom of the grip. This behaviour can have several origins, but it's always for the same reason

Choker tournament : In a choker tournament there are always teams with three or four persons. One of the members plays alone at each hole and this score counts as half of the team score at each hole. As this player takes a great responsibility he stands under a lot of pressure. For that reason this golf player is allowed to choke – that permission is the origin of the name. The rules in the choker tournament can vary, thus for example the choker title can rotate, so at each hole another member is the choker.

Chop : To hit the ball with a hacking motion or the word immediately after “pork”.

Chunk :  A poor shot caused by hitting the turf well behind the ball, resulting in a fat shot. (The defending champion's defense ended when he chunked his tee shot on the par-3 16th and hit the ball into the pond guarding the green).

Chunk/chunk shot : Chunk or Chunk shot is a mis-hitten golf shot. In there, the golf club strikes the ground before it strikes the golf ball and in the process the club digs into the turf and produces a divot. As a consequence the club can't hit the golf ball properly and the ball won't go very far and at the same time it feels terrible because of the collision of the golf club with the ground.

Church pews bunker : The Oakmont Country Club accommodates a large bunker called church pews. This bunker is one of the most famous hazards in the world. It is situated between the third and fourth fairway at the Oakmont Country Club and is a hazard for both holes. The bunker got his name because its surface is broken up by 12 grass rows. As those rows look like church pews the bunker is called church pews bunker. At first the rows were only seven, then they extended the rows up to twelve in total. At the golf course there is a second bunker alongside the 15th fairway which is sometimes called mini-Church Pews because it is smaller, but in fact designed in the same way.

Circle on the scorecard : As the Circle on the Scorecard is another term for the birdie, it describes a score one stroke under par on a hole. The name has its origin therein, that some golfers denote the birdie in the scorecard by circling the score, so they can count the birdies easily after the round.

Claret jug : The Claret Jug is the trophy awarded to the winner of The Open Championship in Great Britain. The trophy is officially known as Championship Cup, but because of its shape it is vernacularly also known as Claret Jug. The Cup is made based on the model of the style of silver jugs at the 19th century.

Claw grip : The claw grip is a method of gripping the putter. Characteristically is, that the fingers of the bottom hand curl over the top of the club's grip and not under the grip as more usual. Synonyms for that are gator grippsycho grip.

Cleek :  A fairway wood with the approximate loft of a 4-wood that produces high shots that land softly. (He played a beautiful shot with his cleek that almost rolled into the cup).

Clone : A Clone is a golf club, that copies the look and the characteristics of an more expensive club but the clone has no patents.

Closed clubface :  The position formed when the toe of the club is closer to the ball that the heel, either at address or impact, which causes the clubface to point to the left of the target line. (Her closed clubface resulted in her missing several approach shots to the left of the green).

Closed face : A closed face at the position of a clubface relatively to the target line at the moment of the clubface striking the golf ball. The toe of a club is turned a little inward at a closed face. Additionally the angle is less than 90 degrees with a closed face. Furthermore the closed face is one of the common causes for a hook or a pull.

Closed grip :  Generally referred to as a strong grip because both hands are turned away from the target. (PGA Tour pro Ed Fiori was nicknamed "Grip" because of his closed grip).

Closed stance :  A description of a stance when the rear foot is pulled back away from the target line. (Her closed stance allowed her to hit a gentle draw of the tee).

Closed-to-open :  A swing in which the clubhead is closed on the backswing but then manipulated into an open position on the downswing. (Miller Barber was a very effective player, even though he had a closed-to-open swing).

Closest point of relief : Closest point of relief is the designation for a situation, in which golf players are allowed to drop the golf ball without penalty within the play. It is regulated, that this procedure is allowed in order to release the golf ball from an immovable obstruction, from abnormal ground conditions or in case the ball is positioned on the wrong green. The further specification is, that within the closest point of relief is only allowed to drop the golf ball in the size of one golf club length, thus the interference can no longer distract the golf ball. A commonly known synonym is nearest point of relief.

Closest to the pin : A contest called closest to the pin designates a par-3 hole and gives a special award on that hole. This contest mostly takes place at club tournaments and the golfer who tees off and plays closest or nearest to the pin wins the contest. It is additionally also known as nearest to the pin.

Club : The expression golf club describes basically three different meanings. On the one hand side it is part of the equipment, so the device you do your strokes with. Furthermore it can also describe a golf course or a special golf facility, whereas on the other hand side the term golf club can also refer to a group or an association of golf players, the most popular ones are the USGA and the R&A golf association.

Club loft : The Club Loft is a very important part of the golf club, because it can influence the flight and the distance of the golf ball at the stroke. In fact it is the angle of the club face.

Club professionals : Golf professionals can either be touring golf professionals and therefore playing at different golf courses more or less for themselves, so not playing for any golf club, or the pro golfers can be so-called club professionals meaning they are connected with any golf club.

Clubface : The clubface is the surface of a golf club which strikes the golf ball at impact. So in fact, the clubface is an essential part of the golf club. Characteristically for the clubfaces of irons is, that they have grooves in regular intervals. In general diver clubfaces do not have grooves, but in order to look similar to irons, they sometimes have cosmetic lines on the clubfaces, those lines are called scorelines. The iron clubfaces are flat, whereas the clubfaces of woods are very marginally curved from side to side, this is called bulge, and from top to bottom, which is called roll.

Clubfitting : The expression clubfitting refers to the adjustment of the golf club for the individual needs of the golf player. The clubfitting includes for example the length of the shaft or the grip can be individually modified.

Clubhead : The hitting area of the golf club.

Clubhead speed : A special measure how fast the clubhead of a golf club is travelling at the impact of the ball is the clubhead speed. The speed is measured in miles per hour and often recorded by a launch monitor or a different radar-employing device. Usually male golfers reach a speed of about 85 mph, and female golf players about 60 mph. Professional Golfers can easily surpass this and reach speed between 90 and 115 mph. A common synonym for clubhead speed is swing speed.

Clubhouse : The main building at the golf course where players usually go to have refreshments and tell about their 2 under par round (note

Cocked wrists :  A description of the hinging motion of the wrists during the backswing in which the hands are turned clockwise. Ideally, the wrists are fully cocked at the beginning of the downswing. (He cocked his wrists early in the backswing to hit a high, soft shot over the bunker).

Coefficient of restitution :  The relationship of the clubhead speed at impact to the velocity of the ball after it has been struck. This measure is affected by the clubhead and ball material. (Testing showed that the new ball had a very high coefficient of restitution).

Coil :  The turning of the body during the backswing. (Her ability to fully coil on the backswing resulted in tremendous power).

Collar : The turf, which is arranged like a ring around the putting green is called collar in golf. The grass is a little bit higher than the one on the putting green, but slightly shorter than the turf on the fairway. If a golf ball rests on the collar, it can't be lifted, because it is regarded as off the green. Additionally, at professional tours even if the stroke was made with a putter, the golf ball which struck from the collar is not considered as a putt for reasons of statistical tracking. Sometimes the collar is also called fringe, apron or frog hair.

Collection area : As the name says, in the collection area, something is collected. In fact, the area collects golf balls in it, because it is a sector at the golf course, which has a lowering at one side of a green, so that a lot of approach shots will roll into the collection area. Thus knowing where the collection area is, is very useful in order not to hit the hay. But collection areas are not that common, so more or less it's kind of a “special feature” at golf courses.

Come over the top :  A motion beginning the downswing that sends the club outside the ideal plane (swing path) and delivers the clubhead from outside the target line at impact. This is sometimes known as an outside-to-inside swing. (Sam Snead came over the top slightly, which he felt produced more powerful shots).

Come-backer : If a putt went past the hole, a come-backer putt is the one, which is required after the mis-hit.

Committee : The committee is the term describing the modification of the rules of golf. It is basically invented, because every golf course is different in its circumstances and characteristics, so there are elected club members at the local golf courses, whose job it is to set and push through the local rules. Thus the committee are those members who manage the modification of the rules of golf with regard to the local circumstances. The committee is also known as rules committee or local committee.

Competition scratch score : In a Competition Scratch Score all recorded scores in a competition are used in order to recalculate the handicap after the competition. The Competition Scratch Score can differ from the “Standard Scratch Score” one shot below up to three shots above.

Compression :  A measure of the relative hardness of a golf ball ranging from 100 (hardest) to 80 (softest). (Like most powerful players, he preferred a 100-compression ball).

Conceded putt : A conceded ball is a gifted one. The opponent presents a hole to you, which you don't need to hole out, because whenever he tells you to concede you a ball, it is automatically considered as holed out. The conceded putts are only allowed at the match play, but not at all in stroke play. Another common name for the conceded putt is concession.

Concession : The concession is only allowed in the match play, but not at all in the stroke play. It is usually the gift of a putt, a hole or the whole match. To concede a putt to an opponent means, that it is automatically holed out. It shows, that the putt has been good anyways and the golfer would have anyways holed out. To concede a hole usually means some kind of giving up, because the opponent would win the hole anyways. In total, it is a saving of time and used to faster move on to next hole. The match concession means to give up the entire match, if it seems to be totally hopeless to win the match anymore. Conceding a whole match is very unusual and shows bad respect and attitude, because golfers should still keep playing even if a victory is hopeless.

Condor : A score with four strokes under par at one individual hole is a condor. As it's only possible with two strokes at a par-6 hole or by acing a par-g hole, the condor is extremely rare. But until today, no golfer has ever played a condor at a par-6 hole. In general a golfer doesn't only need to have a lot of golf skills, but also a positive interaction of many aspects, like for example tailwind and sloping fairways. Other synonyms are triple eagle and double albatross.

Connection :  A description of a swing in which all the various body parts work harmoniously to produce a solid, fluid motion. (Many players focus upon connection as a key element in the golf swing).

Consecutive nine-hole scores : The consecutive nine-hole scores are a combination of two separately played nine hole rounds. The requirement is to play the rounds within seven days in order to arrive at a score which is suitable for an adjustment of the handicap.

Conservation of angular momentum (coam) :  A law of physics that allows the player to produce large amounts of kinetic energy. As the body shiftsits weight and turns towards the target in the forward swing, the mass (arms and club) is pulled away from the center into an extended position by centrifugal force. By temporary resisting that pull as well as the temptation to assist the hit by releasing too early, one maintains the angle formed between the club?s shaft and the left arm and conserves the energy until a more advantageous moment. This has been referred to as a "delayed hit," a "late hit," "connection," "lag loading," "the keystone" or COAM, but when performed correctly may simply be called "good timing."

Continuous putting : Continuous putting is the process of putting immediately again, without waiting for the rest of the flag. It is usually performed, when the golfer putted the golf ball so close to the hole, that it is more easily to simply putt again and hole out, than to mark the ball and wait until it is his turn again. When continuous putting is useful can be judged individually. An indicator is the distance from the hole.

Contour : Contour has in golf the special meaning of an undulation in the putting green, so it contains swales or ridges and other types of undulations. The contour causes a break of the golf ball. It can also appear in other parts of the golf course, but usually this term is used to describe the surface of the putting green.

Contoured green : A putting green, which includes a lot of undulation like ridges, hollows or swales is called contoured green. Those irregularities can evoke breaks. Therefore contoured greens are hard to putt, but even those have to have some flat sections to make sure, the golf ball can be holed out. The Augusta National Golf Club is famous for its heavily contoured putting greens.

Cool-season grasses : A special variety of grass which grows the best in cool conditions are called cool-season grasses. This type is especially used at golf courses which are situated in regions with cooler temperatures. A very famous variety of cool-season grass is bentgrass. This is a popular putting green – it is so acclaimed, that for example the Augusta National Golf Club installed an air conditioning system to produce a cooler surface in order to be able to use bentgrass at their putting greens.

Coring : When used in golf, coring is a special method of maintaining putting greens or fairways. Within the coring, there is a process of aeration, thus the soil is loosened and the technique also opens growing room for turfgrass roots and the aeration process also helps the nutrients to get to the roots. The process is done with a special machine, which removes small cores of sod from the green and leaves a little hole.

Count-back : Count-back is a method of defining a winner, when the round ended with a tie. There are various procedures to determine a winner, but usually the scores of the last nine, six, three and the final hole are compared in order to nominate the final winner.

Country club : The country club is a social and recovery facility which sells memberships and therefore gives the members the possibility to use its facilities. A typical country club contains a golf course, and tennis or swim facilities. The country club can be either very private and expensive, or semi-private for example in also giving non-members the possibility to play at the golf course and therefore the membership is less expensive. At most country clubs it is possible to play their golf course if they are guests of a member no matter whether the club is very private, or not.

Course : The golf course is the entire designated area, in which it is allowed to play golf. So it includes all holes from hole one to hole 18 with its fairways and putting greens and also the driving range.

Course furniture : Course furniture is an expression which includes all the accessories and amenities in and around a golf course. It contains for example the ball washers, the tee markers, yardage markers or also the on-course benches. Course furniture is only for the actual furniture at the outside of a golf course, but not inside the clubhouse.

Course handicap : The USGA course handicap is basically a special number telling the golf players how many handicap strokes they get to apply in one round of golf. In the USGA Handicap System the handicap index of an golfer gets factored by the difficulty of a golf course and the result out of that is the course handicap of the golfer. Your course handicap distributes you strokes for each of the heaviest holes.

Course handicap conversion chart : If a golf course is part of the USGA Handicap System, the stroke index of each hole on the course is available on a special conversion chart.

Course management : The course management are the tactics, decisions and strategies of an golfer and how he generally plays the golf course. Thus a good course management means the golf player makes good decisions with regard to for example his golf club selection or his putting lines. In the opposite a bad course management means a golfer makes the wrong choices and therefore fails at the holes or the whole round.

Course rating : The difficulty of a course. Usually the higher the course rating the harder it is.

Cricket/strong> : One special side bet in golf is called cricket. The basic structure is, that groups consisting of three golfers play and per hole six points are determined in a predefined order. The order is defined by the lowest, middle or highest score per hole. The golf player who used the lowest strokes for holing out a particular hole earns four points, the golfer with the middle score at this hole receives two points and the high score player doesn't earn any point. If two golf players tie, it is again specified. In case they tie on the low score, each of them gains three points and the third golfer obviously doesn't earn a point. And in case all the team members reach the same score at an individual hole, each of them earns either zero or two points. The distributed points can either have a monetary amount or bragging rights, but in any case it has to be defined prior to playing. Further designations for the betting game are English, Split Sixes or 6-Point Game.

Criers and whiners : Criers and Whiners is the game of mulligans, that means it is a replay of a shot, when you first hit a bad shot. Criers and Whiners can be used from any position at the gold course. In fact, it converts the handicap of a golfer into free shots which he can use during the round. Thus his free shots are not connected to any part holes. Criers and Whiners can be modified, so it can be used in combination with the full handicap, but usually it is played with two thirds of the handicap, thus the golfers are more careful in using the free shots. Additionally it is normally not allowed to replay the first tee shot and one tee shot can only be replied twice, not more often. Criers and Whiners can be played in an tournament or for pleasure among golf friends.

Criss cross : One variation of golf is called Criss Cross - it can be played in an tournament format as well as as betting game for pleasure. That game can be either played in a team or as single player. The main focus is to compare the front 9 holes with the back 9 holes are compared. Thus the first pair is hole 1 with hole 10, the last is hole 9 with hole 18. Within the pairs, the lower score gets circled. In the end, the nine circled holes get added up and count as total score. In the tournament format, the game is played in whole flights and the handicaps are used to determine the golfers to the fitting flights.

Croqued style : If golfers suffer from the yips, this putting stance is often used. Within this putting stance, the golfer stands aside the golf ball and thereby he faces the hole. Furthermore he holds the club with a widely-split grip and in the end he strikes the ball with some kind of a croquet stroke. The USGA banned a stroke in a similar style, where the golfer faced the hole and thereby positioned the golf ball in between his feet.

Croquet style :  A putting stance popularized by Sam Snead in which the player stands aside the ball, facing the hole, holds the club with a widely-split grip, and strikes the ball with a croquet-type stroke. A similar style, in which the player faced the hole with the ball positioned between the feet, was banned by the United States Golf Association. (A croquet-style putting stroke is popular among players who suffer from the yips).

Cross bunker : A cross bunker is a bunker, that the golfer has to cross on the usual line for playing the hole. There are no standards of cross bunkers in regard to the size, the shape, the depth or the position. But they are commonly wider than deep and can be positioned totally on a fairway or only partially and partially in the rough. Of course it can also be the other way round, so completely in the rough. As you need to play the hazard in order to play the ideal line of play, they are a challenging hazard.

Cross-handed :  A grip in which the left (or lead) hand is placed below the right hand (in other words, a grip that is the opposite of the traditional grips. (Bruce Lietzke used a cross-handed grip when putting and was very successful).

Crown : When used in golf, crown refers to the top surface of the clubhead. Thus exactly the part of the golf club a golfer sees, when he is in the address position. The expression is usually used for drivers, woods, fairways and hybrids. Meanwhile special materials allowed lighter crowns in the drivers and for that reason the weighting and balance can be calculated in a new way in order to make the golf club even more playable.

Crowned green : If a putting green, has its highest point near the center, and therefore it slopes down from the middle to the edges, it is called crowned green. Crowned means it slopes away from the middle line. So in fact it could also be used for example for the teeing ground or the fairways, but usually it refers to putting greens. Another term with the same meaning is domed green.

Ct : CT is the abbreviation for characteristic time. In fact, the USGA and the R&A measure this time, to find out, if the spring-like-effect of drivers is conforms with the limits of the Rules of Golf. Namely the springiness is the contact of the clubface and the golf ball is measured in microseconds. The springiness is responsible how far the golf ball can fly.

Cup : The thing in the hole that holds the flagstick.

Cup lining /cup liner : The cup lining or cup liner is the special plastic part in the hole or inside the cup, which is responsible for keeping the flagstick upright.

Cupped wrist :  A position in which the left or top hand is hinged outward at the top of the backswing. (Her cupped wrist caused the club to be pointed to the left of the target at the top of her swing.)

Cuppy lie :  A lie when the ball is sitting down slightly, usually in a small depression. (He had a difficult shot because he had to play from a cuppy lie in the fairway.)

Cut : When used in golf, the term cut has several meanings. In a golf tournament, it is the elimination of the lower half of a stroke-play field in the middle of the tournament. Usually the top half of the golf players can move forward in playing the tournament, whereas the bottom half played too bad in the tournament and therefore is forced to go home. There can also be more than one cut within a tournament.

Cut line : In golf, the cut line is a score which divides the golfers in a stroke-play tournament in two halves. The ones who are allowed to continue playing and the other ones who are not allowed any more. So at the cut line only the top scorers are allowed to move forward. But there are also specific rules concerning the cut line in the different tournaments.

Cut shot :  A shot played with a slightly open clubface and a swing path that travels out to in. The result is a soft fade that produces additional backspin and causes the ball to stop quickly on the green. (Lee Trevino was known for his ability to play beautiful cut shots).

Cut throat : The cut throat is a variation of playing at the tee boxes. At first, each member of a flight or group places his golf ball on the ground near the tee marker on one side of the tee box. The golfers are forced to use the club with which they'll tee off. Then they knock the golf ball across the tee box and hit the far tee marker. The procedure moves forward by going back to the side of the tee box where it started, hit that tee marker and hit the golf balls of the partners with the own golf ball. When the golfer failed in process, it's the turn of another golfer. When he didn't fail it's his tun until he fails. The game is only allowed, when there are not any other flights at the tee box, which want to tee off, so it's not allowed to hold up another group because of playing cut throat.

Daily fee course : A golf course, which is privately owned but at the same time open to the general public, is called “daily fee course”. Usually those courses are nowadays more expensive and therefore more upscale. The name is owed to the start of opening public courses by private companies

Dalys : Dalys is the designation for a particular side bet in golf. It received its name because of “John Daly”, a golfer with a powerful drive. For that reason, the “Dalys” bet is basically about the performance of the best drive at each hole. In order to play “Dalys”, it is significant to define before the game, whether the bet is in play, or not and also which money value it has. A further regulation can be, that in order to win the bet, the long drives has to get on the fairway and if no golfer manages it to do so, the bet for this hole is taken over and added to the next hole. The most common synonym for the bet is “Nicklauses”, but other synonyms like “Tigers” or Bubbas are also acquainted.

Dance floor : Among golfers, the putting green is colloquially also called dance floor.

Dawn patrol : The dawn patrol are golfers or a whole flight who are usually playing very early in the morning – thus as the name says, if possible at the crack of the dawn. The dawn patrol are the first golf players at the golf course at this day. Another term for dawn patrol is dew sweeper.

Daytona : One golf betting game is called Daytona. Basically there are two golfers at each side. The scores of the two golfers in the team get paired together. So not added, but paired, it means if the team shot for example a 5 and a 6 the result is a 56 and not 11. A general rule is, that the lower score number goes first. Flip the bird can be an additional regulation of Daytona. If one golfer in the team shot a birdie and the other side doesn't, the rule flip the bird implies, that in this case the score is reversed and the higher score stands first. It only needs to be clarified before the game, whether flip the bird will be part of Daytona or not. A synonym for Daytona is Las Vegas.

Dead : When used in golf, the term dead refers to a shot with no possible positive outcome. This term is often used by TV-broadcasters.

Dead hands :  A shot in which the hands remain relatively passive in the hitting area, resulting in a shot that flies a shorter distance than it normally would. (He dead-handed a 5-iron on the par 3, which confused his fellow players).

Decelerate :  A decreasing of the clubhead speed in the hitting area. (Jones decelerated on his putt, and left it short of the hole.)

Deep-faced driver :  A driver with greater-than-standard height on its face. (His PGA Professional suggested trying a deep-faced driver).

Defender : Defender is a special betting game in golf. In the ideal case there are groups of three or four golfers, for each hole, one golfer of the group is the defender. The defender tries to make the lowest score on this hole, whereas the other members of the group try to beat the defender's score. The defender rotates on every hole, so every member of the group is the defender at some point. When the defender won the hole and defended his score, thus he had the lowest score, he earns three points and each of the other members loses one. On the other hand side if his score loses, he automatically loses three points and each of the other members earn one point. In the case of a tie at the lowest score between the defender and another member, the defender earns 1.5 points whereas the other members lose 0.5 points each. The game can be either played with real money value or only for points.

Delayed hit :  A golf term used to describe the Conservation of Angular Momentum.

Demo day : The so-called demo day is an event, at which the golfers have the chance to play with different golf clubs. Sometimes the golf clubs are from different manufacturers and even with representatives of those manufactures in order to answer questions directly, but most of the time it is a demo day for one individual manufacturer with one representative of this manufacture. Usually the demo day takes place in a pro shop with swing bays or alternatively also at the diving range in order to check out the golf clubs on the course. The demo days are conservatively free to attend.

Derby : The derby is a special tournament variation in golf. At the beginning of the round there are 19 golf players. At each hole the worst golfer, so the one with the highest score has to leave. In the end, at the 18th hole, the winner is last one remaining. Another term for derby is shoot out.

Desert course : A golf course in the midst of the desert is called desert course. The most popular desert courses are the ones in Arizona and Persian Gulf states. Most of the time those golf courses are the only colored spot in the middle of an area out of rocks, cactus and lots of sand. Therefore the desert courses can only flourish because of heavy watering and maintaining treatment.

Desert courses are, as the name says, situated in the desert. Thus they are most commonly the only green area within their environment. Generally the desert courses are situated in oil rich emirates or the american southwest.

Desert swing : As the European Tour takes partly place in the Persian Gulf region, the desert swing is the nickname of this part of the Tour. The tournaments of this part are played in the desert golf courses which are built in the midst of a desert. Presently the three tournaments Abu Dhabi Golf Championship, Qatar Masters and Dubai Desert Classic are part of the desert swing.

Deuce : Hmmm, now lets see, if an ace is a hole in one, then a deuce must be a hole in two! That’s right Sherlock! It is a score of 2 on a hole!

Devil ball : In Devil Ball there are groups of four golfers who tee off in a competition. In order to create the team score, there are two scores combined. One of those scores is the one of the devil ball player, because the score gets together from the score of the devil ball and the lowest score of the other three players. Throughout the round, the devil ball rotates among the golf players in the team. Other terms for this variation of golf are money ball, lone ranger, pink ball, yellow ball or pink lady.

Dew sweeper : If a golfer in a pro tournament has a very early tee time in the third or fourth round, he is called the dew sweeper. The dew sweepers made the cut, but usually they are the closest to the bottom, so generally spoken they are the worst scorers of the better scorers. Meanwhile the term dew sweepers also refers to golfers who like to play very early in the morning, so the first golf players at the golf course. Those players are also called dawn patrol.

Die in the hole : The term die in the hole expresses, that a putt almost didn't make it in the cup, but somehow made it. So the golf ball barely had enough speed to drop into the hole – it used its last energy to die in the hole.

Dimple : The small round indentations on the golf ball. A lot of really smart guys (some call them scientists) got together and figured out how many dimples would help the ball fly straight and true.

Dimple pattern : As manufacturers design their golf balls in different ways, the dimple pattern differences the golf balls of the different manufactures. The pattern is the way the dimples are arranged on the cover of the ball. As the number and the size of the dimples, their arrangement also influences the flight of the golf ball, such as the distance, the spin or the trajectory.

Dimples : The dents at the surface of a golf ball are called dimples. Those dimples affect the flight of a golf ball, like for example the trajectory or the spin of the golf ball. The brands of the golf balls usually differ in their golf ball pattern. Those differences also produce different characteristics of the flight.

Disaster : The disaster is a variation of golf. It is basically a points game – points are awarded to the worst player or team. The winner or winning team in disaster is consequently the one which played worst and therefore gained the most points. Commonly in disaster there is for example one point for each, like for hitting a water ball, hitting in a bunker, playing out of bounds, failing by getting the golf ball out of the bunker or a 3-putt. There are two points awarded for playing the golf ball from one bunker into another. The golfer gets three points in disaster if he plays a 4-putt and four points for playing a whiff. But the point system can be adapted individually, and other variations, like for example erasing all points when a par is made are also common. Another popular name for disaster is trouble.

Divot :  The turf displaced when the club strikes the ball on a descending path. (Her divot flew into the pond.) It also refers to the hole left after play. (Her ball landed in an old divot, making her next shot difficult.) Lesson learned

Divot tool/divot fixer : The divot tool is also known as divot fixer, and it is – in opposite to the name – a tool for fixing the ballmarks, not the divots. If the golf ball landed out of a great height at the putting green, it produces a hollow, a so-called ballmark. Repairing them with a divot tool is very important in order to insure that following golf balls will not be distracted by the ballmarks.

Dog licence : Until 1971, the dog licence costed seven shillings and six pence (7/6) in the United Kingdom. Therefore, a victory with seven holes in a match play and six holes remaining, so the winner is already clear at hole 12, is called dog licence.

Dog track : If a golf course is badly groomed, it is vernacularly called dog track. A synonym for that condition is goat track.

Dog-balls : Dog-balls is an expression concerning the score. In fact a golfer reached a score of eight strokes at any hole. Dog-balls in golf are more commonly known as the Snowman.

Dogleg : This is one of two things. It is either one of four things that Rover walks on or it is a hole that goes straight for a while then has a bend (or “dogleg”) to the left or right. You decide which fits here!

Dormant : Dormant is a term that refers to the grass of a golf course. Golfers call the grass dormant, in the winter month, when it gets brown and thereby has a rest within the winter month. One example for dormant grass is bermudagrass, which also changes its colour into brown in the winter month. It is common to overseed the dormant grass within the winter, meaning to let another kind of grass grow over with the effect, that the turf is also green in the cold months.

Dormie :  The point in match play when a player is up in a match by the same number of holes that remain. (When Lanny Wadkins had his opponent dormie three, it seemed like the Americans would win the Ryder Cup).

Dormie house : If there is a building at the golf course where overnight accommodation is provided, this building is called dormie house.

Dots/dot game : One variation of playing golf is called dots. Basically, there are some side bets collected in this variation. The specification is, that every group needs to play with their own ball, but instead of that, the group can decide by themselves, which side bets they want to use. Dots means, that the involved golf players mark their scorecards with dots when they have won the side bet on a hole. At the end of the round, the golfers count their dots and settle up. Most commonly used in dots are for example the side bets closest to the pin, long drive or sandies. But in fact the variation of the game is totally up to the golfers.

Double bogey : A score of two over par for one hole. These are not very good!

Double cut : The double cut is an action, where the putting green has been mowed twice a day. In there, at the first mowing it is usually back-to-back, whereas in the second mowing is perpendicular to the first mowing. Through this process the speed of the putting green can be increased. Another meaning of double cut is the division of the field in golf tournaments. Usually the field is cut once in tournaments, but if it's cut twice, this process is called double cut.

Double d : If a golfer first used a driver for the tee shot, and afterwards he uses it on the fairway, this is called double d.

Double eagle :  A score of three under par on a hole. (Gene Sarazen's double eagle at Augusta National is one of the most famous shots in golf history). 

Double green : Double Green designates a large green which is for two different holes. Thus in fact it has two different flagsticks, and the holes can be played separately with two groups at the same time. Sometimes there are double greens on parkland courses, but they are often designed in older links courses in Ireland or Great Britain.

Doubles :  When a caddie carries two sets of clubs. (Carrying doubles was hard work in the hot weather, but he never complained).

Down : When used in golf, down refers to the number of strokes or holes which one golf player is behind his opponent.

Downhill lie : The ball is on the downslope of a hill. When a right handed player addresses the ball his right foot will be higher than his left foot.

Downswing :  The swing forward from the top of the backswing. (The clubhead accelerated smoothly on the downswing).

Drain : To make a putt (“drain it”).

Draw :  A shot that flies slightly from right to left for right-handed players. (She hit a draw into the green that stopped two feet from the hole.)

Draw shot : This is when a right handed player hits a controlled hook, which goes from right to left.

Drive : This is the term which means your tee shot. It is also usually the way you get to the golf course.

Driver : This is the club known as the 1 wood. It is usually the club that hits the ball the farthest. It is also a person that very rich people have to haul them around.

Driving iron : A special golf club is called driving iron. It is designed to be used in the place of a driver. A driving iron has generally a larger head with more bulk, more weight and a lower loft than a standard iron. In comparision with the driver, it has a shorter shaft in order to have a better control during the swing. So this aspect of control is the advantage of a driving iron contrary to a driver.

Driving range :  Another term for a practice area. Also known as a golf range, practice range or learning center. (Watson headed for the driving range following his round.)

Drop : This is a way that you get the ball back in play after hitting a shot into the water or out of bounds. This also happens to waitresses when they carry too many plates.

Dropout scramble : Dropout Scramble is an expression which refers to a variation of the scramble which is played in golf. In there, the general design is, that there are groups of four players, and in every team all the players first tee off, out of that, the best shot is chosen. Up to there it is the same structure as in the classic version of the scramble. But from there on it distinguishes, because the golf player who shot the selected golf ball has to sit out for the next shot, and only the three other golfers are allowed to shot. There is again the best shot chosen and the golfer who shot has to sit out and only the three other golfers can make the next stoke. The process moves on in this fashion and so does the whole round, until all the cups are holed out. Other terms for this variation are florida scramble, step aside, stand aside, mexican standoff or stand out.

Dub : A poorly hit shot. I “dubbed” that shot.

Duck hook :  A shot that flies sharply from right to left for right-handed players. It is usually hit unintentionally, since it is difficult to control. (He hit a duck hook from the tee and the ball flew out of bounds.)

Duff : The duff is a golf shot, which is basically mis-hit, to be clear about it, it is the expression for a terrible shot.

Duffer : One who hits a lot of bad shots. Can also be called a “hacker”.

Dunk : When used in golf, dunk is a term that refers to a golf ball which landed in a water hazard.

Dynamic balance :  Transferring the focus of weight appropriately during the golf swing while maintaining body control. (Sue worked with her PGA Professional on improving the dynamic balance of her swing.)

Eagle :  A score of two-under-par on a hole. (His eagle on the 17th hole assured his victory.)

Early hit :  When a player prematurely releases the cocking of the wrists on the downswing, resulting in a loss of power at impact. This is also known as "casting from the top." (Her tendency to make an early hit made her one of the shortest hitters in the field.)

Eclectic : Eclectic is a special variation of the golf tournament. In there, the golf players play several rounds and only the lowest result on each hole is recorded, in this strategy an 18-hole round is produced.

Effective loft :  The actual loft on a club at impact as opposed to the loft built into the club. Effective loft is determined by, among other things, the lie and the position of the hands relative to the ball at impact. (The uphill lie added effective loft to the club).

Effective playing length/epl : The effective playing length is the length of the golf course which is measured with consideration of factors like if its going uphill, downhill or flat or also other factors like for example the weather. If a golf course is for instance designed to go more downhill than uphill, its effective playing length will be shorter because the golf ball can roll longer and therefore he has more distance on his shots.

Elevated green : In case the green is higher than its surrounding area, golfers call it elevated green. This in this green the sides of the green slope upward. Another meaning of elevated green can also be, that the green is higher than the teeing ground, but using the term in this regard is only usual on par-3 holes. An elevated green can also be a green which is higher than the elevation of the fairway.

Eliminator : One variation of playing golf is the eliminator. It is basically a golf tournament for 4-person teams. In there, one golfers score is used as team score for one hole (obviously the lowest score, like in best ball), but the golfer whose score was taken is “eliminated” for the following holes, until all players scores had been the team score once. After the last score was used of the last golf player who was eligible, all scores count again and the process starts over again. The teams can make individual specifications on the rules. The eliminator is also known as in the bucket.

Embedded ball : If a golf ball stuck in the ground as a consequence of its impact, among golfers this is called an embedded ball.

English : English is a betting game in golf. In there, groups with three people play, and on each hole there are six points. Each of the three team members can reach a low, middle or high score at each hole. The golfer with the lowest score gains four points, the middle score earns two points whereas the high score doesn't get any points. In case two golf players tie at the low score, each of them gets three points and the third golfer doesn't get anything. If all three members tie, every of them gets either zero or two points. Those points can carry a monetary value or only points and bragging rights, but that can be clarified before the round starts. Other names for English are Split Sixes, 6-Point Game or Cricket.

Equitable stroke control : The Equitable Stroke Control is one factor of the USGA Handicap System. In general, if a golf player is usually very consistent in golfing, but has one hole which he messes up all the time, the ESC minimizes the influence of those slip-ups in the handicap index. The ESC only applies to golf players who actually use the USGA Handicap.

Etiquette : The etiquette of golfing is are guidelines which refer to the proper behaviour on the golf course. In there, golfers find for example guidelines concerning the clothing or the behaviour towards other golf players. The Etiquette is not the same thing as the golf rules, but in fact both is about a fair and fluent game. Additionally the Etiquette and the golf rules, both, are passed by the R&A and the USGA.

European tour : The European Tour in golf is a professional golf tour. As those two are the leading professional golf tours, it is approximately at the same level as the PGA Tour. As the name says, the European Tour takes mostly place in Europe.

Even if those are clear variations of golf courses, it is usually not possible to clearly determine the courses after exact types. Additionally there are a lot of little, more unknown and inexactly defined golf courses. The most common mixture are golf courses with elements of the parkland-course and at the same time some of a links-course. But, apart from the design of a golf course they are also differentiated by their size and the access possibilities.

Even/even par : When used in golf, even or even par means, that a golfer played the same score, that an expert golfer would need for the hole or the entire round. The score is accordingly equal to par.

Event qualifiers : Event qualifiers is tournament format, which is usually played prior to every pro tour event. The victory are the places of the tour event and this manifests its great importance as qualification for a tournament license. The format is basically structured as a round of 18 holes in a stroke play format, because the subsequent tour is usually played in match play fashion. As the qualifying takes place on the Monday in the tournament week, a common name is also Monday qualifying. Furthermore the format is known as Open qualifiers.

Everything but putts : One game variation in golf is called Everything but Putts. There is the possibility of playing it as tournament format or in a group of golfers. The basic format of Everything but Putts is, that no putt counts, meaning only strokes which aren't at the putting area count to the final score. The total score without putts is determined by noting the putts for each hole during the game and in the end subtracting the putts from the whole score in order to separate the Everything but Putts score. After this procedure, the winner is the golfer with the lowest stroke score. Everything but Putts is more commonly also known as No Putts.

Executive course : An executive course is one, which is shorter than a regular course, it has mostly par-3, but also some par-4 and par-5 holes and can be entirely scored with a lower number of strokes than the regular par 72. The executive courses are often courses with nine holes in length. It is not a par-3 course, but the terms are sometimes mixed. The executive courses are built for golfers who have not a lot of time and therefore can play quickly. The nine-hole version of this golf course is commonly also known as Executive nine.

Explosion :  A shot played from a sand bunker, usually when the ball has buried or settled down into the sand. (He played a spectacular explosion shot from the bunker to save par).

Extension :  The width of the swing as measured by the target arm on the backswing and the trail arm on the follow-through. (Tiger Woods has beautiful extension in his swing.)

Face : This is what you see when you look in the mirror and it is also the part of the clubhead that makes contact with the ball.

Face angle : The position of the clubface relatively seen to the target line is called face angle. This is measured in degrees and usually the specifications of the golf clubs of different manufacturers can be seen at their website. As the face angle can have different degrees, there are some distinctions concerning the clubface. If the face angle for example is aligned at the target line, this is called square. In case a right-handed player plays, the clubface can also be aligned to the right of the target – for left-handed golfers it is the other way round, this is called open face angle. The direct opposite to that is a closed one, so for right-handed players the clubface is aligned to the left of the target, for left-handed golfers it is aligned to the right in this angle position. A closed clubface can correct slices, but usually golfers with square face angles can rotate the shaft at the address and thereby they produce an either opened or closed face angle. However to summarize golfers can usually play every hole with a square clubface, but especially for lower-handicap golfers who might often produce a slice, an slightly open or closed face angle can support their game and help correcting mis-hits.

Face-balanced putter : In case a putter is face-balanced, the clubface will be flat, will point to the skyward and run parallel to the ground whenever he needs to balance across the index fingers of an golfer. Those putters are face-balanced and have clubhead properties like opening less on the backstroke and closing less on the through-stroke within the putting. Therefore those putters are especially useful for golfers with a straight-back-and-through putting stroke.

Facing : Facing is an expression referring to one part of some bunker designs. A grassy slope out of a bunker in the direction of the putting green is the facing, because it faces the golf player to play out of the bunker in the direction or directly onto the green. This facing is usually sloped upward a couple feet, but it can also incline up to daunting heights. As the terms face of a bunker and facing of it have different meanings, they can not be used substitutable.

Fade :  A shot that flies slightly from left to right. (She hit a gentle fade from the tee and never missed a fairway in the final round).

Fairway : This is the area on the golf course which lies directly between the tee box and the green and is cut really short and maintained really nice. You want to hit from this area if at all possible.

Fairway bunker : A fairway bunker is a bunker, thus usually a sand hazard, which is located within the fairway. Sometimes it is not directly in, but neighboring to the fairway.

Fairway hit : Within a fairway hit, any component of the golf ball is touching the fairway surface. But a fairway hit is only considered as such, if the shot has been made on a par 4 or 5. Generally the percentage of those fairway hits is one of the statistics which is preserved by the PGA Tour.

Fairway markers : Fairway markers are special markers giving the distance from the individual marker to center of the green. Sometimes those markers directly show the yardage, but usually they are colored and every color has its meaning. One coding could for instance be, that yellow means 250 yards, blue gives a 200 yardage, white a 150 yards, whereas the red marker shows the distance of 100 yards. As there is no clear specification about those colors, the meaning of the individual colors can vary on every golf course.

Fairway wood : Woods with higher numbers are known as fairway woods. Those golf clubs are used for shots from off the fairway where still long distances are required. The main characteristics of the fairway wood is on the one hand side that they have a higher loft, on the other hand side they have a shallower face height. Because of those features it is easier to hit fairway woods off the ground than deep-faced drivers. The fairway woods are also recognizable because of there slightly shorter and stiffer shaft, a smaller clubhead and more loft than a driver or a 2-wood.

Fairways & greens/f&g : One variation of a betting game in golf is called fairways & greens or F&G. It is advantageous to play the game with golf players of similar handicaps. The target is to be either the only golfer hitting the fairway off the tee, or the only one hitting the green in regulation. If the golfer is the only one who reached one of those objectives, he won the bet. If more golf players managed to get on the fairway or the green, the bet is carried over to the next hole. If F&G is played for points, the golfer with the highest points earned through the round, wins the overall bet.

False front : The false front is an expression for a special design of putting greens. It is basically a front part of a green which slopes toward the fairway. In case the golf ball hits the false front it'll roll backwards into the fairway. As the ball should remain on the green, the golf player tries to carry his golf ball beyond the front of this putting green.

Fan : The term fan refers to a golf swing, within which the golf player totally misses the ball. Whether the golfer wants to count the embarrassing mis-hit in the score or not is the golf players decision. A synonym for that is whiff.

Fanning :  An exaggerated opening of the clubface as the backswing begins. (He fanned the club open on the backswing and hit mostly slices.)

Fat shot :  A description of a shot when the clubhead strikes the turf behind the ball, resulting in poor contact and a shot that comes up well short of the target. (She hit a fat shot from the tee on the par 3 and, as the ball sank from sight in the pond, so did her chances of victory).

Fat/fat shot : If a golfer hits the golf club in the ground prior of the contact with the golf ball and entails a layer of turf or sod which comes between the club face and the ball. The golf ball bounces only a few centimeters for that reason. This is obviously a mis-hit and among golfers it is known as fat or fat shot. Besides, the result of the fat shot is a divot – the fatter the shot has been, the deeper is the divot. The fat shot is for instance also known as heavy shot, chunk shot or chili dip, whereas the opposite is the thin shot.

Favorite holes : Favorite Holes is the designation for a side betting game which is commonly played among golfers during the round. Before the round, each golf player who takes part in the betting game puts an agreed-upon amount into a pot. Afterwards – but also before the start of the round, each golf player circles his three favorite holes within the game, where he thinks he'll score best. The considered scoring is in relation to par. In the end, the best score wins the Favorite Holes. This game variation is also known as Best Holes.

Featherie/feathery : Featherie or Feathery is the name of former golf balls. The golf balls basically had a leather surface and were stuffed with chicken or goose feathers. Furthermore they were usually hand-sewn and white colored. Producing a featherie was a protacted, time-consuming process, for that reason they were very expensive. Additionally the flight characteristics of the ball were irregularly, when it became wet its distance was also reduced and it could split open upon the impact or a hard hit on the ground. In fact, even if the featherie had those disadvantages it was an improvement over the golf balls golfers used before – wooden balls.

Feel : The feeling for the golf ball is designated as feel or touch. In order to reach a low score, it is extremely important, that the golf player has a high feeling for the golf ball and also for his strokes, especially within the putting process.

Ferret : Ferret is the term for holing a cup from outside the green. The result is par or better, and in some variations, the holing with a putter can be excluded.

Ferrule : The ferrule is one part of most of the golf irons and some woods. The ferrule is only a cosmetic part at the golf club. It is in fact a plastic cover, which covers the point where the shaft enters the hosel. As it has no influencing function, in case the ferrule is loose, it can usually be simply glued. If the ferrule is loose and at the same time also the clubhead, it is generally required to go to any club repair shop.

Fescue : Fescue is a special species of grass, which is often used on links courses. Characteristics of the fescue are, that it is a sturdy grass, which on the one hand side turns golden and on the other hand side it can grow up to three feet high. The fescue grass is sometimes used for the rough or beyond, but it can also be mowed low, and used as fairway grass, teeing ground or also as putting green. The Chambers Bay and the Whistling Straits golf courses are popular examples using the fescue. At the chambers bay golf course all the turf, meaning the rough, fairways, teeing grounds and putting greens consist of fescue.

Field : All players in one tournament are designated as field.

Finish (position) : When used in golf, finish or finish position refers to the ending stance a golfer takes after the swing. A final battle within a match play is also named finish.

Finishing hole : The meaning of the term finishing hole can on the one hand side refer to the last hole on a golf course, so usually hole No. 18, sometimes, at a 9-hole course, it's hole No. 9. On the other hand side it can also refer to the finishing hole which completes the play of a golfer's round. That means for example at a shotgun start, the finishing hole for each group is another one, because each group starts at another hole, so for example if one group tees off at hole 10 and plays an 18-hole round, their finishing hole is hole No. 9.

First cut : The first cut is a term used for grass which is mown higher than the fairway grass, but not as high as the primary rough. For that reason it is usually easier to play shots from the first cut than from the primary rough.

Fish : One betting game in golf is the so-called fish. It is played in groups and there are three separate bets within the game. On the one hand side there is the bet on the golfer who strokes the first birdie. Then there is the bet on who makes the longest birdie putt and on the golfer who makes the most birdies. There is usually a dollar amount for each bet, but in general it is the same for all three bets. Whether eagles are also worth something or how high the agreed-upon amount is, is up to the group and needs to be clarified before the start of the game, as same as other individual specifications.

Fishies/fishy : Fishies is generally a side bet which can be played with a group of golfers no matter how large the group is. The objective of the betting game in order to win is, to make par on a hole, despite he has hit into a water hazard. Before the start of the round the group has to clarify which value the fishie has and whether they play their round with the side bet. For winning the side bet, it is additionally absolutely important, that the golf ball was totally in the water of the water hazard. Other names for the fishie are splashies, fishy, fishes or fish.

Five of clubs : Five of Clubs is a golf tournament format, in which the golfers are only allowed to use five golf clubs in the round. There are different variations of the specifications, one of them is, that the putter doesn't count to the five golf clubs, so it's five clubs plus one putter. Another one is, that the putter counts to the five clubs, so it's definitely one five golf clubs. Sometimes the name is also spelled 5 of Clubs.

Flags/flag competition : Within this variation of golf, every golfer who plays, carries a little flag. Before the round, the golf players earn a certain number of strokes, in the round, when their strokes run out, the golf players have to stick the flag in the ground from which their final shot is played. The player who played the farthest won the competition. In general, it can be played using full handicaps or also only partial ones. When the full handicap is used, there are often golf players finishing the round but still have strokes left. In this case the round can either keep going from hole 1 on again, or it can stop after the 18th hole and the golf player who has the most strokes remaining is the winner. The game variation is also known as Tombstone or Last Man Standing.

Flagstick : Come’on, you gotta know this one.

Flange :  A portion of the sole of a club such as a sand wedge or putter. (The wedge's wide flange made it an effective club from the deep, powdery sand).

Flare : A flare is a shot that goes severely to the right side. Within that shot, a golf ball began the trajectory at the right side of the target line and in the flight the ball goes more and more to the right side. When the golf ball finally reached the cup, it can't hole in, because it is to far on the right side. This effect is also called block or push.

Flat swing :  A swing that is more horizontal and less vertical in plane than is typical. (Because he had a flat swing, he had to guard against hooking the ball).

Flatstick : The vernacular term for a putter is flatstick. It has its origin therein, that the clubfaces of the putters are usually flat or vertical. But in reality most putters are not flat, and oppositely they usually have a loft of three or four degrees. Sometimes the spelling is also flat stick.

Flex/shaft flex : The stiffness of a golf club shaft is called flexladies and marked with L, followed by so-called allround or senior shafts, marked with an A. The mark R designates regular shafts, S is for stiff shafts and the shafts with the greatest flex are extra stiff and marked with an X. Players with fast swing generally use a shaft with less flex, whereas oppositely golfers with a slower swing need a shaft with a greater flex.

Flexpoint : The flex point is part of the golf club. It's the point at the shaft, where the golf club can bend himself the most. This influences the flight characteristics enormously, if the flex point is nearer to the clubhead, the ball flies higher, in case the flex point is further away from the clubhead, the golf ball flies flatter. But usually the decision about a good or bad game is not about the flex point. Golfers can individually decide about a specific flex point for their golf clubs, but an analysis of the swing before that is recommended. Synonyms for the flex point are bend point or kickpoint.

Flier :  A shot from the rough or in wet conditions that reduces the amount of backspin on the ball, causing it to fly lower and farther than it might under normal conditions. (She caught a flier from the light rough and hit her approach shot over the green).

Flier/flyer : Flier is the term for a shot, which flies longer than intended. Most commonly the flier is a shot from the rough or out of a special lie, like in wet conditions. Additionally, the flier has no spin or only a little bit of it. As a result of the shot, the golfer overshoot his target. The flier lie is the lie of the golf ball in the rough or in wet conditions. Synonyms for the flierflyer or the jumper.

Flight : Basically, flight is the expression that refers to the division of the golf players within a gross stroke-play tournament. It is generally regulated, that golfers who are together in a flight usually have similar skills, which are determined by similar handicaps. As it is counted in gross, this is important, because otherwise a lower-handicap golfer would never have a chance to win. Every flight has a name which indicates their level, for example the best flight is usually called championship flight, and other flights are also titled in order to describe their abilities. Most commonly there is also one winner crowned within every flight after the tournament.

Flip shot :  A shot, usually played with a wedge, that involves a wristy swing designed to hit the ball a short distance but with a lot of height. (He hit a flip shot over the bunker, landing the ball near the hole).

Flip the bird : If golfers play the so-called Daytona or Las Vegas betting game, an additional regulation of the game can be flip the bird. In the betting game, the general rule is, that the team score is a pairing out of the two individual scores of a team, but the lower number always stands at first place. Thus a score of 2 and 3 builds a team score of 23 and not 32. Flip the bird is an agreed-upon adaption of the rule, because in there, it is specified, that if a golfer shot a bird, the score is reversed. The result is then, that the higher score stands first and not the birdie score. But in fact it is important to define prior the game, whether flip the bird is used or not.

Floater :  A ball struck from the deep grass that comes out slowly and travels a shorter distance because of the heavy cushioning effect of the grass between the ball and the clubface. (Gail caught a floater from the rough and hit her approach shot into the pond).

Flop shot :  Similar to a flip shot except that it involves a long, slower swing. (Phil Mickelson is a master at playing the flop shot). Here's an example of one of those Phil Mickelson flop shots.

Flop/flop shot : Flop shot is the designation of a pitch shot which is generally shorter played. For that shot golfers usually use a high-lofted wedge for creating the maximum height within the ball flight. The ideal result should be a trajectory with great height but a quick landing and stopping on the green. This shot is for instance performed, if there is one more hazard until the golf ball reaches the flagstick. The flop shot is most commonly played with a so-called lob wedge, which is highly-lofted, or other wedges. As a result, the flop shot is also known as lob shot or lob. Additionally it is also known as flip shot.

Florida scramble : The so-called florida scramble in golf is a variation of the scramble. The general structure is, that there are four golf players in each team, all golfers first tee off, then the best shot is chosen. At the following point, the florida scramble differentiates itself from the traditional scramble

Flub : See dub above.

Fluffy lie :  A lie in which the ball rests atop the longish grass. This can be a tricky lie because the tendency is to swing the clubhead under the ball, reducing the distance it carries. (The ball came to rest in a fluffy lie near the green, but he played an excellent shot and won the hole).

Fluffy/fluffy lie : Within the fluffy lie a golf ball sits on top of long grass. This is an undesired position, because it is difficult to shot the golf ball out of the location and stroke the ball in a better lie, not in an even worse one.

Flush : If golf players intend to make a perfect impact between clubface and golf ball within the golf swing, this is called flush. To catch the flush is a very desired kind of the impact.

Fly :  The distance the ball carries (He can fly the ball 280 yards with his driver) or a shot that carries over the intended target (She flew the green with her approach shot and made a bogey).

Flyer/flyer lie : The flyer is a shot, most commonly an approach shot, which flies for a longer distance than the golfer initially wanted. The result of the flyer is usually, that the golf player overshoots his objective. No matter what type of lie the flyer produces, the flyer lie is the name of it. Usually the flyer lie is a lie within the rough, and normally it designates golf balls which sit up on top of the rough, because the flyer lie of sitting down is not very common nowadays. The correct spelling of the flyer is flier, but golfers more commonly use the term flyer, written with an y for cosmetic reasons.

Follow through : The expression for the final component of the golf swing is follow through. In fact, the follow through is the completion of the swing after the golf ball has already been struck.

Follow-through :  That part of the swing that occurs after the ball has been struck. (His powerful follow-through was the result of his long backswing.)

Foot wedge : When used in golf, the term foot wedge means, that a golfer used his foot in order to improve the position of his golf ball. Under the rules of golf this is an illegal procedure, but as the foot is used like a golf club, the term foot wedge resulted.

Footgolf : Footgolf is a new created mixture of golf and soccer. It began in the early 2000s in the Netherlands and Footgolf is performed with a soccer ball but in combination with the rules of golf. Every stroke is made by kicking with the feet, thus without golf clubs, but at a real golf course and also with the dress code of the golfers. The specification is, that the golf course has 21-inch holes, so that it can be holed out with the large soccer balls instead of golf balls. Since 2012 the governing organization of Footgolf is also the Federation for International Footgolf (FIFG). Usually a round of Footgolf is played a lot faster, then one of traditional golf, because some time-demanding factors, like for example the club selection or lost balls, are not at all or fewer given in Footgolf than in go.

Footprinting : In case there is frost on the ground of the golf course, golf players are not anymore allowed to go onto the course. That is for the reason, that the grass can be killed by stepping on it when it is frozen. The footprints leave a trail of dead brown grass behind. As the golfers prefer a green, vivid golf course, the golf club forbids walking at the golf course when the turf is frozen for that reason.

Footwork :  The coordinated action of the lower body during the golf swing. (Tom Watson has some of the best footwork of any player in history).

Forced carry : If the golfer shot the golf ball in a position, from where he needs to hit the ball over any hazard at the golf course in order to bring the ball to the green. As he is forced to carry a hazard for advancing his golf ball, this procedure is named forced carry.

Fore : This is spelled differently than the number 4. This is the term yelled when one hits a shot toward another person on the golf course to alert him/her of impending doom from being hit by the ball.

Forecaddie : One specialized type of a caddie is a so-called forecaddie. In fact, it is a person, which other than a traditional caddie does not carry the golf bag, additionally he also isn't the caddie of only one person, he is the caddie of a group of golfers. His task is to accompany the group and keep them moving, in order to do that and ensure a fluent game, he tracks all the golf balls. Thus in case one golf player hits the golf ball in the rough, it is the forecaddies job to search the ball so that the play can continue without any time delay. Forecaddies are commonly only at resorts or luxury country clubs, and usually only chartered by golf players who play in tournaments.

Forged : The term forged in golf refers to the clubhead. It basically means, that the clubhead is forged, thus made, out of one piece of light metal or alloy. It is believed, that the forged club allows the golf player to have more feeling during the strike.

Forgiveness : Forgiveness is the expression for the design and construction of golf clubs, which reduce the effect of mistakes the golfer makes. Those mistakes can either have their origin in poor swings, or in a bad impact. Golf clubs with more forgiveness have for example recognizable design features like greater clubheads, larger clubfaces, cavity backs, thicker toplines or a high moment of inertia. With those or other factors, the forgiveness can for instance make slices less severe or helps getting the golf ball higher in the air. Thus in fact it makes little corrections in poor shots of the golf players and therefore improves their golf swing, but it can not make bad shots go away completely.

Forgiving : In case a golf club is forgiving, he evince design features, with which poor impacts or mistaken golf swings of the golfer are reduced. Forgiving is the adjective for the belonging noun forgiveness.

Fort lauderdale : Fort Lauderdale is a play variation of golf. In there, two teams with two or four players in each play against each other. At first every golfer in a team tees off and the best ball is selected out of the results. Afterwards every golf player in that team will play the next shot from this best ball position. After the second shot the best ball is again chosen by the team and again everyone moves forward from the location of the best ball. This procedure is continued until the ball is holed out, and repeated in the whole round. The variation is also known as Scramble.

Forward press :  A slight movement of the hands and arms (and occasionally the legs) that initiate the golf swing. (A good forward press helps relieve tension in the golf swing).

Forward swing :  The downward motion of the hands, arms and club from the top of the backswing to impact. Another terms for downswing. (Ben Hogan began his forward swing with a lateral shifting of his left hip towards the target).

Fourball : Fourball is a variation of golf. The main design is, that there are two teams with two golf players in each, so in total there are four golfers with four golf balls, hence the name. Every golf player plays with his own golf ball and in every team the better result at every hole counts, the worse expires. The play can be performed as match play or as stroke play and before the game the teams can agree on more individual features.

Fourball alliance : The tournament format fourball alliance is a golf variation in which teams with four golfers in each play against each other. Before the game a number of team scores is determined. Every member hits his own golf ball and then the predetermined number of the best scores is combined and builds the team score. Usually fourball alliance is played with Stableford scoring, but it can also be played as stroke play. This play is also known as Irish Four Ball, bowmaker or money ball.

Four-man cha cha cha : Within the golf tournament Four-Man Cha Cha Cha, the four members of a team play their own golf balls consistently. At the first hole, the best ball counts as team score, this is the first cha. The two best balls count at the second hole as team score, known as cha cha. At the third hole, the three best balls are combined for the team score, this is called cha cha cha. Hence the name Four-Man Cha Cha Cha. All three holes the scores rotate, so for example at the hole No. 4, it is treated as the first hole, so again the best score counts. The round is played throughout in this fashion.

Four-point game : The four-point game is a variation of playing golf. The basic structure is a game with four golfers in total, so in fact, two golf players play in each team. Additionally, there are four points per hole distributed in a special way. One point earns the team with the lowest score, one point is for the lowest high score of each side and the lowest score of each side is considered with two points. In case the golfers played a tie, no points are distributed at all. Whereas a birdie as low individual score is considered with four points instead of only two. In the end, the team with the most points wins. The golf players can agree on playing for money in advance, so in the end the winner gets the agreed-upon amount.

Foursome : A term given to a group of… come’on how many do you think players? (hint

Free drop : A drop that you don’t have to pay for, really that is correct, you get to drop the ball and don’t have to add a stroke to your score. This can happen when there is casual water on the course or ground under repair.

Frenchy : One type of impressive shot in golf is called frenchy. Within this shot, the golf ball hits a tree, but anyways it made it onto the fairway.

Frequency matching : When used in golf, the term frequency matching refers to the golf shafts. In fact, it has great importance, because a clubfitter can ensure a consistent progression within the vibration frequency of shafts in a set of clubs. This vibration frequency relates to the stiffness of the shaft and the frequency matching basically means, that the vibration frequency within a set of golf clubs increases consistently, but not, that it is identical at each shaft. In general, the vibration frequency of shorter shafts is higher than the one of longer shafts.

Fried egg :  The slang term for a buried lie in the sand. (To her dismay, when Nancy Lopez reached the bunker she saw she was facing a fried egg lie.)

Fried egg/fried egg lie : In case a golf ball is plugged or buried into a sand bunker, the terms fried egg or fried egg lie describe that situation. The expression has its origin therein, that whenever a ball is partly covered by the sand in the bunker, and only the top is visibly, it looks like the yolk of a fried egg. Sometimes the expressions buried or plugged are also used for the fried egg.

Fringe : The closely cut area just around the edge of the green.

Frog hair : The expression frog hair is an vernacular term for apron. It is generally the turf which surrounds the putting green. Additionally the frog hair is identifiable because its grass is a little bit higher mowed than the one on the putting green. Apart from apron, the area is also known as fringe or collar.

Front nine : The holes No. 1 through No. 9 or the first nine holes a golfer plays in a 18-hole golf round are known as “front nine”. Another expression for the term is front side, whereas the opposite of the holes are the back nine.

Front side : The first nine holes is usually referred to as the “front side”.

Full finger grip : The method of holding the the golf club with all ten fingers, but without interlocking or overlapping is called “full finger grip”. With this kind of gripping, the shot can be performed imprecisely. The kind of gripping is also called baseball grip or ten finger grip.

Funnies : Funnies in golf is used to delineate achievements during the play. The achievements can either be positive or negative, but usually they are more informal and therefore differentiate themselves from traditional achievements, which are for instance birdies or eagles. As funnies in general enable golfers to win something, which doesn't depend on the score of the match, they are mainly practiced in order to add the interest into match play games.

Gallery : In golf, the spectators at a golf tournament or a golf match are called gallery.

Gap wedge : A special golf club is called gap wedge. Characteristic for the gap wedge is, that it has a high loft and therefore it provides more precision and multiplicity and usually it is used in order to play short shots into the putting green. With regard to the loft this golf club closes the gap between the pitching wedge and the sand wedge. The gap wedge is also known as attack wedge, approach wedge or a-wedge.

Garbage : A variation of betting game within golf is known as garbage. The speciality about this is, that there are more achievements combined in this variation. At first the golfers agree on which side bets they are tracking. That can for example mean hole in one, eagle, birdie or chip-in. Within the game, every golfer plays the round and marks in the scorecard which of the chosen side bets he fulfilled where. At the end of the round, all golf players count their points and cash up. Synonyms for Garbage are Trash, Junk or Dots/ Dot Game.

Gcaa : The Golf Coaches Association of America, shortened GCAA, is a non-profit organization in the USA. In general, the association is professionally focused on men's collegiate golf coaches. It presents for example some awards, like the “Jack Nicklaus Award” or the Ben Hogan Award. The GCAA was founded 1958 and has meanwhile over 750 members.

Gcsaa : GCSAA is the abbreviation for Golf Course Superintendents Association of America. It is a golf organization with the objective of improving the golf course management and representing the interests of greenkeepers. The focus is to create a network and sharing the experiences in order to improve the maintenance of the golf courses. The British equivalent is abbreviated with BIGGA.

Gentlemen only, ladies forbidden : One concept about the origin of the word golf is, that it is an abbreviation for gentlemen only, ladies forbidden. As in earlier times playing golf was dominated by men, this myth continues to this day. It is proven, that this is not the real origin of the word golf. In fact, scientists believe that it crystallized out of a mixture of older dialects and languages. In the specific case it should be out of a medieval dutch word kolf or kolve, which had the meaning of today's club. And this could have been combined with a Scots dialect so that golve, gowl or simply golf resulted. Sources prove, that by the 16th century the word golf was manifested.

Get down : When used in golf, the expression get down is used for describing that the golf ball is putted into the cup.

Get legs : Golf players directly address their golf ball with saying get legs and thereby they kind of cheer the ball, so that it rolls into the hole, because they fear it might not hole out.

Ghin : GHIN is the short form for Golf Handicap and Information Network. Basically this is a handicapping service, similar to a social media network, with which the golf clubs and golf players can post and see information in an electronic way. This is a service of the USGA.

Gilligan : The Gilligan is the opposite of a Mulligan. If it is agreed to play gilligans in a match, every golfer can ask its opponent whether he's allowed to play a shot again without rating.

Gimme : A term for a putt that is close enough to the cup that it will certainly be made so the other player says “it’s a gimme” and the player doesn’t have to putt it. However, he does need to add this stroke to his score!

Gimmie/gimme : The gimmie basically is a donated, but nevertheless rated putt. It is usually a putt, which is that short, that is nearly can not miss the hole any more, because it is so close to the hole. Within the gimmie, the golfer does not have to play the putt, because it then already counts as holed out. In order to speed up, the donated putt is officially often used within a match play and also used in private golf rounds. In golf tournaments, with which the golfers can improve their handicap, and under the rules of golf, donating a gimmie is forbidden. Both spellings, so gimme and gimmie are accepted, and the origin of the word is probably a shortening of give me.

Go to school : Go to school is the term for learning from another golfer's shot, or rather his putt, in order to evaluate the putting green and draw a conclusion out of that.

Goat track : The expression goat track refers to a golf course in poor condition, thus a lowly groomed one. As its synonym “dog track”, those are vernacular terms.

Golden ferret : The golden ferret describes the holing of a golf ball directly from a bunker. It is one very common type of a funny.

Goldie bounce : If a golfer shot his golf ball into a tree in the rough, but it bounces out onto the fairway, even though, this process is called goldie bounce.

Golf association : The golf association is an organization whose function it is to run events and promote golf within a region. The golf association is recognized by the R&A.

Golf buggy : The device for the transport of a golf player's bag of clubs is called golf buggy. There are different designs of the golf buggy, it can for instance be a passenger car, which is gas- or electronic-powered and it also transports the golfer and with this vehicle the player is allowed to drive on a special way over the golf course. Other variations of the golf buggy are for example the walking cart or the push cart. The buggies are usual for rental at the golf course, but the name “golf buggy” is only common in Europe and Australia, in the other parts of the world it is usually called push cart.

Golf car : The golf car is a version of the golf buggy. In this gas- or electronic-powered and driven by the golfer. It is used in order to transport the golf player and his golf bag over the golf course. Usually the vehicle is designed to carry two golfers and their bags. The golf bags are secured in the back of the golf car. Golf cart and golf buggy are synonyms for the golf car, but the term golf car is understandably at the entire world. The golf courses usually keep a fleet of golf cars for rentals – usually for an extra fee, but sometimes also included within the green fee.

Golf cart : In North Africa the expression golf cart refers to the transport vehicles at a golf course. In other parts of the world this is commonly known as golf cart or golf buggy. Usually the term refers to gas- or electrical-powered vehicle, but it can also be one for walking or pushing, which only transports the golf bags. Most commonly the golf courses provide a fleet of golf carts for rentals, they are usually charged for an extra fee, but the rent for the golf carts is sometimes included in the green fee.

Golf club : In general, golf club has three different meanings. The golf club as equipment, thus as tool to play golf is probably the most common usage of the term. Additionally golf club also refers to a golf course or special golf facility. If a golf course for instance has the term golf club included in its name, it's usually an indicator, that the green fee will be higher. The third common meaning of the expression golf club is, that it designates a group or association of golfers, such as the USGA and the R&A golf associations.

Golf club without real estate : The official specification in order to get an USGA Handicap index is usually, that the golf player has to be part of a golf club. As this is not convenient for all golfers, the USGA invented a new concept named golf club without real estate. In fact, the concept is to have a golf club without home course. There has to be at minimum 10 members and it has to include a handicap committee and in general the whole members has to keep the statutes of the USGA Handicapping System.

Golf course : Usually, golf courses are classified in different groups. They are differentiated by factors as their design, the geographical construction and architectonical elements. Usually the design and construction of a golf course are usually similar if the natural environment is similar. Thus basically there are three famous groups in which the golf courses are most commonly differentiated

Golf range :  A facility where people can practice their full swings and, in some cases, their short games. (In Japan, golf ranges are very popular because the number of golf courses is limited).

Golf tee : The golf tee is an important part of every golfer's equipment. It is a little, thin wooden or plastic piece which raises the golf ball off the ground. The golf tee is used for playing the first stroke of every hole from the teeing ground. Basically, it is two or three inches high and at the top it has a stable position, where the golf ball sits before the stroke is played. The golfer inserts the tee in the ground, puts the golf ball on top and plays his stroke.

Golf town : The golf town is an expression with multiple meanings. On the one hand side, written lower-case, it refers to a city, borough or metropolitan area with a plenty of golf courses and a lot of golfers. So this meaning is a flattering term. If Golf Town is written upper-case, it designates a chain of golf retail stores. The stores are founded 1999 and has shops in Canada as well as an online shop. As there is also an Amateur Tour in Canada, which is known as Golf Town Tour, this is the third common meaning of the term.

Good-good : When used in golf, good-good is a term used for a process in match play. As golfers can concede putts within the match play, in the situation of a good-good the two opponents concede putts to each other. That means both are counted as holed out and the golf players can pick up their balls and move forward to the next hole – but all that only, if both sides are fine with the process, if not, they'll have to putt the ball. In stroke play the good-good doesn't exist.

Gorilla : The expression gorilla is vernacularly used for a golfer who managed to hit his tee shot for a long distance.

Gorse : Ulex europaeus is the scintific name for gorse. In general, it is a plant, or rather a shrub with thorns. The relation to golf is, that gorses are commonly plant in links courses in Europe, and therefore golfers should try to avoid getting in contact with a gorse or getting their golf ball in a gorse, because of the thorns and because it is densely overgrown. The gorse probably as famous as it is because it is a common plant at golf courses of the British Open. Other less common expressions for the gorse are hoth, corena, whin, espinillo or furze.

Grain :  The direction which the blades of grass grow, which is of primary importance on the greens (particularly Bermuda grass greens) as this can affect how much and in which direction a putt breaks. (Sam Snead won many tournaments in Florida because he was so adept at reading the grain in the greens).

Grand slam :  The Modern (or Professional) Grand Slam describes winning the four professional Major Championships -- the PGA Championship, the Masters and the United States and British Opens -- in a calendar year. The Career Grand Slam describes winning each of these events once in a career. Only Gene Sarazen, Ben Hogan, Gary Player, Jack Nicklaus and Tiger Woods have accomplished this. No one has ever won the Modern Grand Slam. In 1930, Bobby Jones won the U.S and British Amateurs and Opens, a feat which was termed the Grand Slam and has never been duplicated. The 28-year old Jones retired from competitive golf that year. In addition, The PGA of America's Grand Slam of Golf is a late-season event that features the winners of that year's four Professional Major championships.

Graphite : Graphite is a special material. It is basically carbon based and used to design shafts and clubheads.

Grass bunker : A depression on the golf course, which consists of grass and isn't filled with sand, is called grass bunker. Even if a grass bunker looks like a real bunker and is also a little bit harder to play than normal ground, it is not seen as a bunker under the Rules of Golf. Therefore it is for example allowed to ground the golf club at a grass bunker, but not at a sand bunker.

Grass club : Prior the 20th Century, when golf clubs had wooden shafts and for example woods were made out of wood, the grass club was a club, whose loft most closely matched today's drivers. Nowadays the term is actually not any more in use. A commonly used synonym is play club.

Grasscutter : If a shot travels low, but at the same time fast and skims the grass, it is vernacularly designated as grasscutter.

Great triumvirate : The great triumvirate is a nickname for the three best golf players in the 19th/20th century. They dominated golf in Great Britain and were all British. They were James Braid, J.H. Taylor and Harry Vardon. Each of them won five, Harry Vardon even six times the British Open and he also won the U.S. Open once.

Green : This is a color and also the term used to describe the putting surface on the golf course.

Green grass : The green grass is a term in golf, which is either used in combination with pro shop or retail. Thus green grass is a shop, in which golf products are sold and at the same time it is located on the ground of a golf course. The clubhouse pro shop, which is situated at a golf course is called green grass pro shop.

Green in regulation (gir) : The green in regulation or GIR is a statistical category usually proceeded within professional golf tours, but also in among amateur players or recreational golfers. In order to achieve the GIR, the hole must be reached within par, but in par there are always to putts for holing out included, thus, for achieving the GIR for example on a par-3 hole, the golfer has to reach the green within the first shot. On a par-4 hole, he has to reach it within two shots and on a par-5 hole in three shots. For fulfilling the requirement, the golf ball really has to be on the putting surface. The green in regulation is vernacularly also known as greenie.

Green jacket : When used in golf, “green jacket” refers to a special piece of clothing. In fact, the winner of the US Masters wins the special mantle.

Greenfee : The fee golfers have to pay in order to get on the golf course is called green fee. The green fee depends individually on the golf course and usually the fee varies on the time of the week, of the day and also the status of the golfer. It is common, that weekends rounds cost more, whereas rounds played late in the day, thus a 18-hole round could not be finished any more, is cheaper. Sometimes the green fee is also written in another way

Greenie : In golf, there are two common definitions for the expression greenies. First, it is a side bet for every golf player who reaches the green in regulation. Usually the greenies are included in variations of golf like Dots or Garbage. Prior the start of the round, a group has to afee on even the basics, like whether greenies are in effect and how much they are worth. Furthermore, greenies is also a term in golf for a statical category of greens in regulation, thus it can also be seen as a slang synonym for green in regulation. An alternate spelling would be greeny.

Greenkeeper :  An older, outdated term for the course superintendent. (He was the greenkeeper at Merion for many years).

Greensomes : A special golf tournament format is called greensomes. It is designed for four golfers, so two persons in each team. The basic concept is, that each golfer tees off with one golf ball at each hole and the best ball per team is selected. The team then plays this ball alternately until it's holed. This variation of golf can be played in match play as well as in stroke play. Other names for the format are Scotch Foursomes, Canadian Foursomes or Modified Pinehurst.

Grip :  The placing and positioning of the hands on the club. The various types include the Vardon or overlapping, the interlocking and the 10-finger or baseball grip. (The Vardon grip is the most popular grip today). There is also the reverse-overlapping grip, in which the index finger of the left or top hand overlaps the smallest finger of the right or bottom hand. This is primarily used in putting, although some players use this grip when chipping the ball.

Grip (equipment) :  That part of the golf club where the hands are placed. (After a disappointing round, John's PGA Professional suggested that he have his grips replaced).

Groove :  A description of a swing that consistently follows the same path, time after time. (In his post-round interview, Curtis Strange said his swing was in the groove all day, resulting in a 65.)

Groove (equipment) :  The horizontal scoring lines on the face of the club that help impart spin on the ball. (Before teeing off on the par-3 12th, Jack Nicklaus cleaned out the grooves of his 8-iron with a tee.)

Gross : The total number of strokes a player takes on his round.

Gross/gross score : When used in golf, gross or gross score refers to a score, in which the handicap doesn't count. According to this it is the precise number of strokes the golfer has taken within the round plus penalty strokes. The “net score” is the opposite of the gross score.

Ground :  When referred to in the Rules of Golf, it means the point when the club touches the ground (or water) prior to playing the shot. (It is against the Rules of Golf to ground your club in a hazard).

Ground under repair : An area on the golf course that is being repaired. Golfers are able to take a “free drop” if their ball ends up in ground under repair.

Grounding the club : Placing the clubhead on the ground behind the ball at address position.

Group lesson :  A teaching session in which several pupils work with one or more PGA Professionals. This type of lesson is particularly effective for beginners, especially juniors. (The PGA of America offered group lessons for youngsters as part of the city's summer recreation program).

Gruesomes : A special two-person team game in golf is called gruesomes. It is usually played as betting game, but can be played as golf tournament, too. The basic structure is, that each member of one team tees off. Then the opponent team selects the drive with which the other team has to move on. Afterwards the team has to move forward in alternate shot fashion with the selected golf ball. So obviously the teams chose the golf balls for their opponents and therefore they usually select the worst drive, or most gruesome – hence the name. The golfer who hit this worst shot also has to make the second shot with the golf ball and afterwards the two members of a team move forward in alternate shot fashion until it's holed out. This procedure is repeated for the whole round. The gruesomes is also known as yellowsomes.

Gutta percha : Gutta Percha is a rubbery material which was used to produce golf balls after 1848. Those golf balls were called gutties and the golf game was much easier with that kind of balls, than before.

Guttie : The Guttie was a former golf ball which revolutionized playing golf. It was made out of a gutta-percha core. Afterwards the so-called Haskell golf ball type replaced the Guttie.

Hacker : A golfer who is not very skilled. Same as a duffer.

Half shot :  A shot played with an abbreviated swing and reduced swing speed. This shot is often played when trying to keep the ball out of a strong wind. (With so much at stake, Amy Alcott played a half shot to the final green and made a comfortable par).

Half/halved : If two golfers or two teams managed to play a tie score within a match play, no matter whether it is on one hole, or on the complete match, the score is halved and each of the golf players earns one half of the hole or the match, so none of that none of them won.

Halfway house or halfway hut : A building at the golf course – usually between the 9th and 10th holes, is called halfway house or halfway hut. In there, golfers can refresh themselves during the round with light snacks and drinks.

Ham and egg : The term ham and egg is used in golf, if two golfers of one team compliment each other and want to express that they are fitting like ham and egg.

Hammer/hammers : The basic structure of the golf betting game hammer is, that either two golfers or two teams with two golf players in each play against each other. Prior to the game, the golfers have to agree on some basic rules and also an agreed-upon amount per hole. Thus obviously the golfers can create individual rules and an individual per-hole bet. Within the round, the golf players can hammer their opponents, that means they double the bet on that hole. The opponent can re-hammer the bet and so on. As a result, the game can become very expensive in a very short time, that is another reason, why it is particularly important to set the rules before teeing the round starts. Sometimes the betting game is also spelled with s, thus hammers.

Hand wedge : If the golfer uses his hands for moving or nudging the golf ball into a better position for the next stroke, this is called hand wedge. The behavior is obviously forbidden under the Rules of Golf, and the expression is also only vernacularly used.

Handicap : The number of strokes a player may deduct from his actual (or gross) score to adjust his score to that of a scratch golfer.

Handicap allowance : The handicap allowance is the adjusted handicap. The adjustment depends on which competition a golfer has entered.

Handicap differential : The handicap differential is used in order to calculate the handicap index. This number generally doesn't concern the golfer itself, but it influences the calculation of the handicap index, which the golf players usually don't do by themselves.

Handicap index : The representation of the golf players skills for scoring is shown in a numeral with one decimal place. It is called USGA Handicap Index. The Handicap Index usually shows what is possible for the golfer, thus which score he can stroke the best. A complicated formula is needed in order to calculate the handicap index, but golfers don't need to figure them out by themselves.

Handicap player : If a golf player has a recognized handicap, which was awarded by a Golf Club, he is designated as handicap player.

Handicap-stroke hole : A handicap-stroke hole is a hole, at which an opponent obtains one shot. This is only possible in match play and additionally it is generally defined by the stroke index of the cup.

Handsy : Handsy is the vernacular term for a golfer who has too much wrist movement in the golf swing or putting stroke. This movement causes unequal shots and putts.

Hanging lie : The hanging lie can either mean a golf ball lying below the feet, when a golfer sets the ball up on a sidehill, or it lies above his feet on a sidehill in the address position. The most common usage is, that it is below the golfer's feet. Another term for the hanging lie is sidehill lie.

Hangman : A score of nine on only one individual hole is called hangman. The origin of the term is probably, that some people see a similarity between the hangman's pole and the number nine. Compared to other poor scores, the hangman is one stroke better than the so-called Bo Derek, but one shot worse than the snowman.

Hardpan : Basically hardpan is the description for very hard ground conditions, usually hard, dry clay, with only little, or no grass inside. At the ground of a hardpan, the golfer has difficulties to take divots, but on the other side the golf ball can easily bounce up. As a result, the golf player will hit many shots thin.

Haskell : The haskell is a special version of golf balls. The characteristic of those golf balls is, that there are rubber straps wrapped around the inner section encased in gutta percha. Haskel golf balls were the following golf balls after Gutties. The golf balls are named after its inventor Coburn Haskell and looked like Gutties, but average golf players were able to shot about 20 yards more from the tee than with further golf balls. Later, haskell balls were improved and became the first golf balls with the dimple pattern.

Hate 'em : A special variation of playing golf is called Hate 'Em. It can be played as betting game or as tournament format and the basic installation is, that the golfers who take part at first determine their three worst holes before the round starts. One addition can also be that the golf players have to chose one 3-par hole, one 4-par hole and one 5-par hole, but that can be decided individually. After they selected the holes, but also prior the round, they have to write down a par on each. Then the round starts and is usually played with full handicap. At the end, the strokes are added up, the three pars on the Hate 'Em holes, which are are estimated prior, are included in the summation, and the lowest player or team wins.

Hazard : A hazard is any sand trap, lake, pond, bunker, etc. that may cause problems on the golf course. It is normally a good idea to avoid a hazard on the golf course.

Head : One end of the golf club is the grip, the other end is the head or clubhead. The clubhead is the part of the golf club, with which a golf club strikes the golf ball. In general, there are many different types of heads. The design of the head can be flat, large and rounded or hollow. The different shapes of the head can influence many different factors like for example the center of gravity or the moment of inertia.

Heather : Golf players generally call all tall, thin turf which borders the primary rough on a golf course heather. It is challenging to play the golf ball out of the heather, because it blows back and forth in the wind and additionally the golf club can tangle up in this grass.

Heathland course : A special kind of golf course is called heathland course. The courses are something like a mixture between links courses and parkland courses, because they are inland golf courses like parkland courses, but provide plenty of heather and gorse like typical links courses. Also similar to links courses is, that fairways at heathland courses can be hilly and have unusual bounces inside. Whereas another similarity to parkland courses is, that the heathland course can probably have some trees.

Heel :  The part of the clubhead nearest the hosel. (Fuzzy Zoeller addresses the ball off the heel of his driver). A shot hit off the heel is said to be "heeled."

Heel and toe :  Weighted

High side :  The side of the hole that a putt breaks from. (He missed the putt on the high side of the hole).

Hit a brick : Hit a brick is the expression for a shot on the green. The speciality about that shot is, that the golf ball doesn't roll by the cup.

Hit it flush : If a golfer hit it flush, he managed to hit a golf ball perfectly at the impact, so he made the best possible contact between the clubface and the golf ball.

Hitch : If a golfer made a clear disruption within the golf swing, this noticeable failure is called hitch.

Hitter :  A player who favors a forceful, aggressive style of swing. (Arnold Palmer has been a hitter of the ball throughout his career).

Hog : A special golf betting game which is played with four members is called hog. The game fits perfectly for golfers with similar golf skills, in any other case it is required to use full handicaps. Within the game, one golfer is designated to be the hog on each hole, but the order rotates through the round. At every hole, all players first tee off. Then the golf player who is the hog, can either decide to play against all the other three members or determine a partner for the hole and make a 2-on-2. No matter what he choses, the goal is in any case to win the hole, because thereby he can win either points or alternatively (if previously agreed-upon) also a money value. The point scale is regulated like this

Hogan's alley : Hogan's Alley refers to different things. The Hogan's Alley is the nickname of two golf courses and the real name of one hole, because famous Ben Hogan was very successful at all those locations. The Hogan's Alley hole is hole No. 6 at the Championship Course at Carnoustie Golf Links in Carnoustie, Scotland. This is a very challenging hole, because at one side it is save, but wide to play, and at the other side with the better line there are bunkers and out-of-bounds. Hogan played the hole at the challenging side and therefore won the tournament. The golf courses Riviera Country Club in Pacific Palisades, Calif and Colonial Country Club in Fort Worth, Texas, are both nicknamed with Hogan's Alley, because at Riviera he won the Los Angeles Open several times and additionally the U.S. Open there. At the Colonial Country Club he hold the tournament record of the Colonial National Invitation Tournament with five victories.

Hogies/hogans : In case a golfer hit the fairway with his drive, hit the putting green with the approach shot and then putts twice for par on a hole, he wins a Hogie. Hogie is a common side bet which is often included in Garbage or Dots. Prior playing Hogies it is also important to decide how much a Hogie is worth. The value can either be expressed in monetary value or in points. As usual, the points of each golfer are counted after the bet and the bet is paid off afterwards. The Hogies is sometimes also called Hogans or Faldos. An exception of the Hogans are par-3 holes, because a golf player can't hit a fairway on those holes. Furthermore as in many other side bets it is up to the golfers, which individual rules they want to define at their holes.

Hold : If the golf ball doesn't roll forward and stays near or exactly where it landed, this is designated as hold. Furthermore hold is also the name for when the golf ball stays on the green after its landing.

Hole : A 4 inch round receptacle on the green that you try to get your ball into.

Hole high : An approach shot which is even with the hole but off to one side.

Hole locations : The expression hole locations has several meanings. In the singular usage it means where the cup is situated on the putting green. When used in plural, the hole locations can refer to the general locations of the cups, like for instance whether they are in difficult positions with close hazards or the other way round in easy positions away from hazards.

Hole out : the process of a player completing the hole.

Hole sheet : In golf, the putting green and the position of the flagstick are marked at a so-called hole sheet. Sometimes golf courses provide those sheets, with them, golfers can estimate their approach shots. The sheet is synonymously called pin sheet.

Holed : If a golfer managed it to shot a golf ball into the cup, it is considered to be holed. In case the golf ball is holed, this means at the same time that the hole is completed. Within a match play, a golf ball is also considered as holed, if the opponent conceded the putt.

Hole-in-one : See ACE above.

Hole-in-one contest : The hole-in-one contest as the name says, is a contest with the focus of scoring a hole-in-one. It can either be part of a tournament or also be a stand-alone event. If a golf player managed to make an ace, he can win large prizes, like cars or monetary sums up to million-dollar prizes, within the contest. The contest are sometimes charity events, and therefore the golf balls with which the golfers can tee off are often sold, the golfers can buy several balls so that they receive multiple chances.

Hole-in-one insurance : The so-called hole-in-one insurance is an insurance for golf courses, tournaments, organizations, companies, charities or whoever stages a hole-in-one contest. The main function of the insurance is, that in case a golfer wins the contest, and therefore also the large prize like for example a car or a high monetary prize, the organizer does not have to pay the prize, as the insurance pays it.

Home : Among golfers the term home is used in order to express, that the golfer stroke the golf ball onto the putting green.

Home pro : A so-called home pro is a professional who is resident at the golf club, so reverse the golf club is his home club.

Honest john : A side bet within golf is called honest john. In there, the golfers play in a group and prior to the round each golf player has to pay an agreed-upon amount into a pot. Also before the round, each golfer forecasts the score he'll stroke within the round in his scorecard. Next the group plays the round and afterwards they compare the actual score and the predicted score. The golfer who played closest to his predicted score wins honest john and therefore also the pot. A huge advantage of honest john is, that it is a side bet where golf players with different skill levels can play against each other and at the same time everyone who takes part in the golf game gets knowledge about his own skills.

Honey pot : A special golf tournament prize fund or bonus pool is called honey pot. If there is a golf tournament with a honey pot, each golfer can optionally pay an agreed-upon amount in the pot. If he does so, he is part of the honey pot from then on and eligible to win the money in there. Usually, the winner earns 50 percent, the second one 30 percent and the third winner 20 percent. What counts to the money pot are for example the longest drive or a closest to the pin.

Honor : the privilege of hitting first on the next tee. The “honor” is gained by having the lowest score on the preceding hole.

Honors (betting game) : A side bet in golf is designated as honors. At first a value for each point is determined. Within the play, every time a golfer or team managed it to get the honors, he or it earns a point. In case of a tie, the side which had the honor at the previous hole holds it as long as the other side managed it to win a hole and therefore the honors. At the end the points are tallied up and the difference is payed off. A synonym for this game is appearances.

Honors (order of play) : Honors is the determining order of play after the Rules of Golf or rather after the etiquette. But in fact there are no penalties if golfers disregard the honors neither in stroke play nor in match play. The main function of honors is, that the golfer who has it, is allowed to hit first from the tee box. At the first tee the determination can be either randomly or by any desired means. Afterwards the golf player with the lowest score has the honors at the following hole. If two golfers stroke a tie, the golfer who previously had the honors again is allowed to tee first.

Hood : When used in golf, the term hood and its variations hooded or hooding the Club do have several meanings. At first, hooding the club can mean, that the golf player presses his hands forward and therefore he makes his clubface more upright. A result is a lower trajectory. But in fact, hooding can also be the designation for shutting or closing the clubface and so the golfer counteracts a slice but produces a hook.

Hooding :  The act of placing the hands ahead of the ball, both at address and impact, which tends to reduce the effective loft of the club. (Because he was trying to hit his shot under the tree limbs, Tom Kite hooded a 6-iron and ran the ball onto the green).

Hook :  A shot that curves sharply from right to left for right-handed players. (When playing the par-5 13th at Augusta National, many players try to hit a sweeping hook from the tee.)

Hosel :  The part of the club connecting the shaft to the clubhead. (When the PGA Professional studied Tom's 5-iron, he saw that it was bent at the hosel.)

Hosel rocket : A special variation of a mis-hit is colloquially called hosel rocket. Within this shot, the impact was at the hosel – hence the name – and therefore the shot commonly shoots out to the right at a strong angle. Another name for the hosel rocket is shank.

Hustler : In golf, the term hustler is used in order to describe a cheating golfer. The hustler maintains a higher handicap in order to win the bets within the play more easily. Other expressions with a similar meaning are sandbagger or bandit.

Hybrid : In case a golf club is a combination of an iron and a wood, it is designated as hybrid. Those clubs have the enormous advantage, that golfers can especially manage long hits (between 150 and 220 meters) with hybrids, but they are also suitable in the rough, because those clubs are less caught by the higher grass. Therefore hybrid clubs are an important companion at the golf course. Sometimes they are also called rescue clubs.

Immovable obstruction : In case a golf ball lies in or on an immovable obstruction on the golf course, the golfer is allowed to take a free relief without penalty from the nearest point of relief on. This point is determined and the golfer can drop with one club length of that location without penalty. That means for example, if the immovable obstruction is in a bunker, the golf ball has to be dropped in the bunker, if the golf player doesn't want to take penalty. Furthermore, if a golfer encounters an immovable obstruction within the putting green, the golf ball has to be situated to the nearest point of relief. That also means the golfer is not allowed to place his ball nearer to the hole, but in fact it is the nearest potential point off the green. Within Rule 24 of the Rules of Golf the exact processes associated with the immovable obstructions are listed.

Impact :  The moment in the swing when the club strikes the ball. (Betsy's feet slipped at impact, resulting in a poor drive.)

Improved lie : In bad weather conditions – mainly in the winter month or due wet conditions, this course rule takes effect

In : Within an 18-hole golf course, the last or rather second nine holes are designated as in. Additional designations are back side, back nine or last nine. The opposite are the holes 1-9, those are either called front nine, front side or out. Furthermore in is also the term for a golf ball, which is in the game, thus not out-of-bounds.

In contention : In case a golfer has high probability to win a tournament, this is called “in contention”. If a golf player rises the leaderboard within the tournament, among golfers, this is designated as “moving into contention”.

In play : The official opposite of out-of-bounds is called in play, that means after the tee shot the golf ball comes to rest somewhere on the golf course within its boundaries. As a golf ball is only in play, if it lies within the playing area of the course, the term also includes, that the following stroke is playable.

In the bucket : One variation of best-ball tournament is called in the bucket. There are four persons in one team. Each golfers' score is used as team score rotating every fourth hole, at the first hole it is simply the best ball, so the best score counts as team score. But as every players' score has to be taken every four holes, the golfer whose golf ball was taken first is not counted for the following three holes. So only in hole four if every other score has been taken once, his score could be counted again. After all scores where taken once all scores count again and so forth. The golfers can agree on individual rules within their play and the general game is also called eliminator.

Inactive season : During the inactive season the golfer can't use his scores in order to adjust his handicap.

Index : The index is the short for for handicap index. The index is basically a numeral with one decimal place which represents the skills for scoring. In total it is called USGA Handicap Index and in general it shows the minimum possible score for the golf player, so which score he strokes in his best condition. In order to calculate the index it needs a complex formula, but usually golf players don't need to calculate it by themselves.

Indio effect : The ANA Inspiration is an LPGA Tour major championship. In there, the Indio effect occurs. That means the tendency for putted balls to break toward Indio, a city near the California desert. Thus it is an advantage for golfers to know where Indio lies prior putting because their golf ball will break in that direction. But the reality is, that the break is not caused by the city Indio, but caused by the contours of the putting green.

Insert : Insert is the expression for a little filler of the hollowed out area in the club face of a clubhead. As the hollowed out area is known as cavity back the insert often occurs at irons. This little pad can contain of cavity badge, vibration-dampening polymer or solid metal. Among other advantages an insert the golf club is for example supposed to be more forgiving and provides more feel.

Inside : The so-called inside in golf is the expression for a golf player's ball is closer to the hole than the ball of his challenger.

Inside the leather : In case a golf ball rests close to the hole on the putting green, the designation is inside the leather. As putter grips were made out of leather in the past, this is the origin of the expression. Thus inside the leather in its origin means, that the distance from the bottom of the putter grip to the clubhead of the putter is as close as the distance from the golf ball to the hole. Inside the leather is also an approximate measurement for the decision of a gimmie. In order to measure the distance, the golfer places the putter of the clubhead inside the cup on the green. Then he lays the putter flat on the putting surface and extends the back to the golf ball. As written before, within this measurement the ball is inside the leather, if it lies between hole and the bottom of the grip. This measurement needs to be done very carefully in order not to damage the edges of the cup.

Inside-to-in :  A description of the swing path that, all things being equal, will produce the greatest percentage of solid, straight and on-target shots. It refers to a path in which the clubhead travels from inside the target line, to impact, and then back inside the target line. (Once she developed an inside-to-inside swing, her ballstriking improved dramatically).

Inside-to-out :  A swing path in which the clubhead approaches the ball from inside the target line and, after contact, continues to the outside of the target line before turning back to the inside of the target line. (Every so often, his inside-to-out swing path resulted in shots that missed the target to the right).

Intended line of flight :  The direction a player plans for his ball to begin after impact. (Because she planned to hit a hook from the tee, her intended line of flight was at the righthand fairway bunker).

Interlock : Interlock is the abbreviation of interlocking grip. In that kind of grip the little finger of one hand and the index finger of the other hand get interlocked with each other. This grip is especially requested to golf players with little hands, powerless wrists and weak forearms, because as the hands are kind of locked, golfers with those characteristics get more stability with the help of this grip.

Interlocking grip : A type of grip where the little finger of the lower hand is interlocked with the index finger of the upper hand.

Investment casts : Investment casts refers to a special casts manufacturing method of clubheads. The metal clubheads are produced by molten metal which is poured into moulds for clubs.

Invitational : A type of golf tournament, in which the golfers who are allowed to take part need to be invited or have a qualification for an invitation is called invitational. The invitational is the opposite to an open, where every golfer is allowed to take part.

Inward half : Within an 18-hole golf course, the last nine holes, thus holes 10-18 are called inward half. Furthermore synonyms for those holes are back nine, back side, in, inward nine and last nine. The opposite of the inward half are front nine or outward half, meaning the first nine holes.

Inward nine : Another designation for the last nine holes of an 18-hole golf course is inward nine. Those holes 10-18 are additionally known as back nine, in, last nine, back side or inward half. But the term inward nine has its origin therein, that the holes 1-9 usually went away form the clubhouse, whereas the inward nine went back, so in the direction of the clubhouse.

Irish four ball : Irish Four Ball refers to a tournament format of Australia. In there, teams of four golf players use a Stableford or Modified Stableford scoring system and each plays their own golf ball. The scores of some team members are combined in order to built the team score. Prior the game, the number of team members whose scores are summarized is determined. There are different variations for the team scoring system. One of them is, that the two lowest scores per hole are added for the team score. Another one is, that for holes 1-6 the lowest golf ball per hole counts, from hole 7-11 it's the two lowest scores, from hole 12-15 the three low balls are summarized and at the remaining holes all three scores are combined as team score. Another common variation is, that the combined team scores depend on the par of the hole. Thus at a par-3 hole the two lowest scores are summarized for the team score, at par-4 holes the three lowest golf balls and at a par-5 hole all four scores count as the team score. But in fact the golfers can decide individually how they want to determine the team score.

Iron : A club with a metal head which is not a wood!

Iron byron :  A testing device modeled after Byron Nelson's swing. It is used to test clubs and balls. (After tests using Iron Byron, the new balls were measured to be longer.)

Island green : In case a putting green is surrounded by water, it is called island green. In the past those areas were rare, but meanwhile they are more common. Usually those island greens are found on par-3 holes, but they can occur on other par-4 or par-5 holes, too. And in general most of the island greens are no real islands but more like peninsulas, thus not completely surrounded by water but have a land connection.

Jab : Jab is the designation for a special putting stroke. It is usually short but at the same time quick and commonly it can also be erratic.

Jack and jill : Within a jack and jill golf tournament, the golf players in a team are composed by mixed genders. Thus there are always men and women paired together in teams. Usually, there are 2-person teams and specific variations of golf like best ball, alternate shot are used.

Jack nicklaus award : The Jack Nicklaus Award is an annually award for the best men's college golfer in the USA. The Golf Coaches Association of America presents the award. The name, Jack Nicklaus exists since 1998 and Jack Nicklaus won the NCAA men's championship in 1961.

Jack nicklaus medal : Jack Nicklaus won the NCAA men's championship in 1961 and therefore, since 2012 the Jack Nicklaus Medal is named after him. The Medal is awarded to the winner of the U.S. Open who additionally also receives a trophy and other prizes.

Jack nicklaus trophy : The Jack Nicklaus Trophy is presented to the winner of the year on the PGA Tour, to the golfer of the year on the Champions Tour and also to the player of the year on the Web.com Tour. At the PGA Tour the winner of the Trophy is voted by the PGA Tour players. Jack Nicklaus himself won this award at the PGA Tour five times, and it is named after him since the beginning of the trophy in 1990.

Jail : A golfer’s term for a ball hit into a lot of trees which makes it very difficult to hit your ball out of…”in jail”

Jerk : A jerk is a golf shot with a straight trajectory but the final lie is left or right from the hole and therefore the golf ball doesn't hole out. Sometimes the jerk is also called pull or yank.

Jigger : The name jigger in the past referred to an old golf club of the 20th Century. It was roughly equivalent to a today's 4-iron. As it had a short, wooden shaft, it was usually used to perform chip or approach shots. But on the other hand side term is also a designation for a short pitching club which was used for the play around the putting green – nowadays this is basically similar to a pitching wedge. It is synonymously also called pitching niblick or lofting iron.

Joe pesci : A downhill putt breaking away from the golf player and either ending up in a hazard, holes out or ends up farther from the hole, is designated as Joe Pesci. Joe Pesci was an actor who played tough guys and therefore the putt is named after him.

Joker's wild : Joker's Wild is a golf tournament for four-person teams. Within the play, play cards determine, whose score counts for each hole. Therefore, it has to be randomly designated prior the game, which card - heart, diamond, spade, club – goes with which golfer. Afterwards all golfers tee off and play until the teeing ground of the first hole. Then, one variation is, that the golfers find one playing card in the hole and this card determines whose score counts for that hole. This procedure repeats at each hole. Another variation is, that all team members play the first hole completely and move on to the next teeing ground. There, the playing card that counted for the prior hole is displayed. Obviously it is also possible to show two or even more playing cards at each variation and those are combined for the team score at the hole. But those specifications can agreed-upon individually. In both variations it is clarified, that in case the joker shows up, the lowest score of the team counts as team score at the hole. In fact, in order to play this tournament variation a tournament committee has to prepare and mix all the displayed cards prior the play.

Jumper : A shot, that flies longer than the golfer wanted it to, is called jumper. Usually the jumper results because it's played from the rough, but furthermore also the lie of the golf ball, like for example in wet conditions, can cause the farther shot. The shot flies as far as it does because the golf ball has roughly spin or even none of it and therefore the golfer clearly overshoot his objective. Other designations for the far shot are flier or flyer.

Jungle : A golfers term for heavy rough or in the woods. (i.e. in the jungle)

Kick : A golfer’s term for bounce. (I got a bad kick means I got a bad bounce)

Kickpoint : The name for one component of the golf club is kickpoint. In detail, it refers to a the point at the golf club, where it bends the most. The bending affects the trajectory of the ball after the impact. If the kickpoint is located nearer to the head of the golf club, the golf ball usually flies higher, whereas in case the point is situated further away from the clubhead, it flies flatter. Even if this is proved, the kickpoint is usually not crucial for a good or a bad game. A golf player can also decide a specific kickpoint for his golf clubs, therefore an analysis of the golf swing is required. Other terms for the kickpoint are bend point or flex point.

Kickuyu : A special African grass species is called Kickuyu. It is characteristically fast-growing if it receives full sunshine and hot water, therefore it doesn't fit to woodland or temperate climates.

Kinesiology :  The scientific study of man's movement and the movements of implements or equipment that he might use in exercise, sport or other forms of physical activity.

Kinetic energy :  The form of energy associatedwith the speed of an object. Its equation is

Kitty litter : Kitty litter is generally a colloquial term for a sand bunker, because in combination with its litter it reminds on a cat box. Hence, cat box is also a slang term for a bunker.

Knee knocker : In case a golfer has to hit a short cut, which he shouldn't fail, but nevertheless does, it is called knee knocker.

Knickers : Knickers is the American designation for special golf trousers which end shortly below the knee and are worn in combination with knee socks. This is a very characteristic outfit for golfers. In Britain, the trousers are either called plus fours or plus twos.

Knife : In the past, all iron heads were forged. And as the one-iron was the sharpest and therefore most dangerous to use, a slang term for this iron was knife.

Knockdown shot : Basically, the so-called knockdown shot or knock-down is the designation for a golf shot with a general low trajectory within the flight of the golf ball. Usually the special shot is played within a strong wind or crosswind, or if there is an obstacle, under which the golfer wants the golf ball to fly in order not to touch it. To play a knockdown shot, the golf ball first is farther back in the golfer's stance, furthermore the golfer plays with a shorter backswing, a quicker follow through and additionally with less loft.

Kp : KP are initial letters for the term closest to the pin, thus a contest at par-3 holes. It gives a special accolade for the golf player who is closest to the cup.

Ladder tournament : The ladder tournament is a golf tournament variation which is usually played in groups of golf players. Usually it is ranked from the weakest to the strongest player and every golfer plays as individual. When competing against strong golfers, the low position golf players try to improve their position, hence to move up the ladder. In general there don't need to be organized play dates, because the ladder tournament can take place over an extended time period. A speciality is, that only the lower-ranked golfers can challenge the higher ones up to three spots above, but not the other way round. In case the challenging golf player wins, he changes place with his opponent. Usually a ladder tournament takes place in a 3-month period through the summer and the golfer who reached the highest place at the end wins the tournament.

Ladies playday : In the past, there was a time, where women were not allowed to play golf whenever they wanted to and the “good” tee times were usually reserved to men. Women generally had to reserve dates on designated ladies playdays. This discrimination meanwhile exists only in rare golf courses. Furthermore, meanwhile ladies playday is also the expression for a tournament day which is only permitted for women. Thus in case there are both, men's and women's associations, at one golf club, the tournaments which are only for women are designated in that way. Sometimes they are also called women's playday.

Ladies tees : As there are multiple sets of tees at the tee box on each hole, the forward ones are called ladies tees. Thus if a golfer always plays from the “ladies tees” within one round, he automatically plays the shortest possible length. The golfers usually select the tees where they play off out of their skills, meaning how far they are able to hit. As women most commonly hit their golf balls not as far as men, and therefore often chose the forward tees, the name for those tees arose. Meanwhile the expression isn't adequate any more, because a lot of women are also able to play from the backward tees, whereas some men tee off from the forward ones. Thus therefore the synonyms forward tees or red tees are often used for the ladies tees.

Lag :  A shot (usually a pitch, chip or putt) designed to finish short of the target. (Since the green was severely sloped from back to front, he hit a lag putt that stopped just short of the hole.)

Las vegas : Las Vegas is the name of a golf betting game in golf. The basic structure is, that there are two teams with two golf players in each. The team score is the pairing of the two scores. For example scores of 4 and 6 result in a team score of 46 and not in 10. But in fact, the lower number always goes first, so that it can't be 64 at the given example. An additional regulation can be the so-called “flip the bird” variation. It needs to be agreed-upon whether the additional rule is used or not. But in case it is used, it means, if one golf player shot a birdie his team score is reversed, thus the lower score, meaning the birdie, stands at second place, not the higher. Another commonly used expression for the whole betting game is Daytona.

Las vegas scramble : One variation of the typical scramble in golf is the Las Vegas Scramble. In that competition format, four-person teams are built and a 6-sided die is prepared. Prior the game, each team member receives an individual number between one and four. All golfers of the team tee off at the first teeing ground. After that, the die is thrown. In case it showas any number between one and four, the golf player with the matching number is the one whose score counts as team score for that hole. If on the other hand side the number 5 or 6 comes up at the die, the team can determine the best drive and this golfers' score is afterwards counted as team score. After the decision about whose score counts, the hole is holed out in regular scramble fashion. Another important fact is, that the Las Vegas Scramble isn't a synonym for the betting format Las Vegas - those are different game variations in golf, even if the name sounds similar.

Last man standing : A special variation of golf is called last man standing. In there, each golf player also carries a flag. Prior the start, every golfer receives a specified stroke number and wherever the strokes run out within the round, the golf players have to stick their flag. The winner of the contest is the golfer who played farthest. Before the start of the round, the golfers can agree on whether using partial handicaps or full ones. In case the golfers agree on using full handicaps, there are usually golfers who have remaining strokes at the end of the round. Then golf players can either move on playing from hole one or it can also stop at the end of the round, thus at hole 18. If the golfers agree on stopping after the 18th hole, the golfer who has the most remaining strokes wins the last man standing. Synonyms for the variation are Tombstone, Flags or Flag Competition.

Lateral hazard : Any hazard that runs parallel to the fairway.

Lateral slide :  or Shift

Lateral water hazard : A lateral water hazard is a water hazard lying sidewards of a hole. It can run the full length downward a hole. Characteristically for lateral water hazards is, that they usually are undroppable, thus it is not practical or maybe even impossible to play drop behind the hazard. The official definition of lateral water hazards is regulated in Rule 26 within the Rules of Golf. Usually those hazards need to be noticeable designated by red stakes or red lines.

Launch angle : The angle of ascent of a golf ball directly after the impact and relatively to the groundline from where it was struck is expressed in degrees. It is called launch angle. Factors like swing speed, angle of attack, the clubface position at impact and as biggest component the loft of the golf club are influencing the launch angle. Meanwhile manufacturers can optimize the launch angle even at the design, but the launch angle also depends enormously of the swing skills of a golfer and at the clubfitting an individual launch angle can be adapted. The improved launch angle can lead to more carry and therefore more distance.

Lay off :  When the swing plane flattens out at the top of the back swing, it causes the club to point to the side of the target and the face to close. (His PGA Professional watched him hit a few balls and then told him that he was getting the club laid off at the top of his backswing.)

Lay up : In case a golfer shots shorter than he would be able to, this behavior is called lay up. It is performed if a golf player wants to avoid hitting a hazard or a certain position. Within a proficient course management, lay up shots are commonly played.

Layout : In golf, layout is the term referring to the architecture and arrangement of the golf course.

Leader in the clubhouse : The leader in the clubhouse is the designation for the golfer with the lowest score who already completed the regulation play.

Leading edge : The foremost edge at the sole of a golf club is designated as leading edge. It received its name as it guides the golf swing.

Learning center :  A complete practice and instruction facility, which may or may not be on the site of a golf course. (While there was no golf course nearby, she was able to work on her game at the local learning center).

Level-par :  A term describing a score of even par. (Jones was level-par after the first round of the Open).

Lever system :  The skeletal system is composed of numerous bones which, in mechanical terms, act as levers. The two primary levers in the golf swing are

Lie :  As it relates to the ball, the position of the ball when it has come to rest. (He hit his drive into the rough, but luckily had a good lie). As it relates to the club, it is the angle of the sole of the club relative to the shaft. (He liked the sand wedge but the lie was too flat.)

Lie angle : The golf club's angle between the center of the shaft and the sole is called lie angle. In order to measure the lie angle, the golfer soles the club flat on the ground with a straightforward line renewing back from the heel of the club along the ground. The most common lie angle is usually between the mid-50 degrees and the mid-60 degrees. It is important, that the lie angle matches to the swing characteristics of the golf player. Sometimes the lie angle is only abbreviated with lie.

Lights-out :  A slang term describing an outstanding round or stretch of holes. (She played lights-out after the turn).

Line :  The intended path of the ball, usually referred to in the context of putting. (She judged the line perfectly and made the putt).

Line of flight :  The actually path of the ball. (There was a grandstand in his line of flight, so the Rules official allowed him to take a drop without penalty).

Line of play : When used in golf, line of play designates the expected way a golf ball should travel. The line of play naturally ends at the cup and doesn't go beyond the hole, because it's obviously the target to hole out.

Line of putt : The line of putt is the expression referring to the way a golf player intends his golf ball to roll after he putted it. As the cup is the target, the line of putt is of course not going beyond the hole.

Line up : A synonym for the alignment of a golfer is line up. The term refers to the position of the golfers' body in the direction of his target. It is generally crucial for the perfect swing, that the parts of his body, meaning the feet, hips and shoulders are aligned parallel to the target line.

Links :  The term for a course built on linksland, which is land reclaimed from the ocean. It is not just another term for a golf course. (The Old Course at St. Andrews is the most famous links in the world.)

Links courses : Links courses are a special variation of golf courses. Golf was originally invented at links courses in Scotland. It is characteristically for links courses, that they are for example built along arenaceous coastlines. Therefore they usually contain of coast grass and usually don't provide trees, furthermore the green is most commonly large and slowly and the fairways are rather fast and tough. Additionally, as it is situated nearby the coast, the links course is usually open for wind, but on the other hand side it is casted by rain and therefore it is easy to maintain. Another common feature at links courses are deep, big bunkers.

Lip : The top rim of the cup or what you have two of on your face.

Lip out : A putt, where the golf ball catches the lip of a hole and doesn't fall in is called lip out. Golfers always try to avoid lip outs, because it costs a following putt and this heightens the score.

Lob shot :  A short, high shot, usually played with a wedge, designed to land softly. (He played a delicate lob shot over the bunker and saved his par).

Lob wedge : The lob wedge is a particular wedge with a high loft. Golfers often use the lob wedge in order to play a lob shot.

Local knowledge : A golfer, who played a particular golf course several times and therefore is aware of its individual characteristics and features, is said to have local knowledge about this golf course.

Local rule : Additionally to the rules of golf, golf courses can have individual rules for the specific golf course. They are called local rules and concern for example the abnormal conditions or include any other specifications of the golf course.

Local rules : A set of rules for a particular golf course as determined by that course.

Loft :  The degree of angle on the clubface, with the least loft on a putter and the most on a sand wedge. (Tom Kite popularized the sand wedge with 60-degrees of loft.) It also describes the act of hitting a shot. (Kite lofted his approach over the pond).

Lofting iron : The lofting iron is a 20th Century, thus historical, golf club. Characteristically was a short, wooden shaft, for which it was most commonly used for chipping or approaches. In comparison to modern golf clubs it is most similar wedges or a 4-iron. The lofting iron is synonymously called jigger or pitching niblick.

Lone ranger : Lone Ranger is a competition format for groups of four golfers. First, all members tee off within the competition. For the creation of the team score two scores are combined. One of those scores is the one of the lone ranger golfer. As second score, the lowest one among the other three scores is determined. Within the round, the lone ranger title rotates through the golf players in one team. Other expressions for the lone ranger are money ball, pink ball, yellow ball, devil ball or pink lady.

Long and short : A particular golf format is called long and short. In there, two-person teams compete against each other. The basic structure is simple

Long game : If a golfer hit the golf ball over 180 yards within his game, long game is the designation for this performance.

Long irons :  The 1-4 irons. (The long irons are often difficult for people to hit, so PGA Professionals often recommend replacing them with fairway woods.)

Long putter : A putter with a very long shaft therefore is called long putter. In general, its shaft-length is about 50 inches or even more. A common behavior in connection with the putter is to anchor the upper end of the putter at a golfers' chin, sternum or chest and therefore gaining more stability within the stroke. Golf players who struggle with yips often prefer the long putter because it curbs the shake motion. Controversial discussions about the process of anchoring the long putter resulted in a rule change. Accordingly the anchoring is prohibited as of the date of January the 1, 2016. A commonly known synonym for the long putter is broomstick putter.

Longest yard : In golf, one golf betting game is called Longest Yard. It can be played in groups of golfers with either two, three or four golfers. The speciality about the game variation is, that in case a golfer wins a hole there are no traditional points awarded, but the yardage of the hole are the awarded points. Meaning if a hole is 450 yards long, the golfer who wins the hole receives 450 points. As a general golf course can usually have 5000 to 7000 yards, it means at stake those points can be won. Longest Yard can be either played in a group versus group format, or in a one versus one format. It is also possible to play for a money value, but it's not recommended to play for money per hole, it's better to play for an agreed-upon amount for the whole round.

Looking up :  The act of prematurely lifting your head to follow the flight of the ball, which also raises the swing center and can result in erratic ballstriking. (Once she stopped looking up, her scoring improved dramatically).

Loop :  The shape of the swing when the backswing and forward swing are in different planes. (Jim Furyk has a distinct loop in his swing but his swing is very effective). Loop also refers to a round of golf. (The caddie finished his morning loop and then went right back out without eating lunch.)

Looping : A vernacular expression for caddying is looping. The slang term has its origin in the word loop, which is most commonly used by caddies in order to describe the circuit around the golf course. The 18-hole rounds he caddied, can synonymously be called loops and hence the caddying he did during one day can automatically be called looping.

Loose impediment : Loose, natural objects at the golf course are called loose impediments or in singular loose impediment. These are for example pebbles, leaves, twigs, branches, and also dung, worms and insects. On the putting green sand and loose soil are also counted as loose impediments. Golfers are allowed to call snow and natural ice either as casual water or as loose impediments. The speciality about the loose impediments is, that they can usually be moved without penalty. The exception for that particular rule is, if the golf ball and the loose impediment are both in the hazard. Within the rules of golf, the loose impediments and the behavior of golfers toward them is exactly described in Rule 23.

Loosened grip :  Any time a player opens his fingers and loses control of the club. When this happens at the top of the backswing, it is often referred to as "playing the flute." (Once he made the grip changes his PGA Professional suggested, his problem with a loosened grip was corrected.)

Lost ball : If a golf ball can't be located after a stroke during the play, it is defined as lost ball. Usually playing with two golf balls is not allowed, but according to the etiquette a lost ball can be replaced by a provisional golf ball, in order to save time and guarantee a fluent game.

Low ball-high ball : A particular betting game in golf is called low ball-high ball. The basic structure is, that there are two two-person teams competing against each other. As the name allows to expect, the two lowest and the two highest scores are compared at each hole. The better team in variation gains the point per hole. As an example, in case one team strokes a score of four and five, but the other team a score of three and six, the second team earns the point for the lowest score, whereas the first team earns the point for the highest score.

Low putts : Low Putts is the designation for a side bet among golfers, but it can also be played as tournament or competition format. Within the low putt tournament format, only the putts count during the round, and not the strokes. The winner is the golfer who shot the lowest putt-score. During the low putts side game, the basic structure is the same. There are usually four golfers either playing a round in stroke play fashion, or with concurrently running side bets. And to any of those the low putts side bet can be added smoothly. Prior the round, the value of the bet needs to be clarified. After the round, each golfer counts his putts and the one with the lowest used putts wins the bet – or, if agreed upon, he wins the pot.

Low side : The term low side refers to the downhill edge of a hole. The low side arises, if a golf hole is located in a slant and therefore has an uphill and a downhill edge. The uphill edge is known as high side and the golf ball generally breaks from that side.

Lpga : LPGA is the abbreviation for Ladies Professional Golf Association, which is the American organization for the women golfers who play professional golf, founded in 1968. It is most commonly known as operator of the particular “LPGA Tour” and this is the most significant women's golf tour for professional women golfers all around the world.

Luck of the draw : Luck of the Draw is a commonly known golf betting game in golf. It is basically designed for a group of four golfers who are playing in foursome fashion. Furthermore the general structure combines golf as well as poker. The round starts with a full deck of playing cards per foursome, and each golfer needs to pay his share of the pot. In the round, the cards are dealt out consistently depending on the score. In case one golfer made par, he gains one card, if he made a birdie he earns two cards and for an eagle he receives three new cards. In the end, after the completion of all 18 holes, the golf player with the best 5-card poker is the winner and therefore earns the pot. In case more teams are participating the pot can also be split up.

Lucy : A mis-hit, in which the golf club is shot with the hosel, thus with the connection of shaft and clubface. As it also happens to professional golfers, this mis-hit is classified as the worst shot in golf. Furthermore it is also called shank or socket.

Lunch ball : During private rounds, charity or playday tournaments, a do-over can be permitted. This is called the “lunch ball”. The lunch ball is not legal after the rules of golf, because it is a do-over without any penalty. The lunch ball is also known as mulligan, mullie or sunday ball.

Made cut did not finish (mdf) : Made cut did not finish or its abbreviation MDF is used within the PGA Tour. Within the PGA Tour, in order to reduce the field, a cut is made after the second round, thus after 36 holes. There are usually the top half golfers and ties. After 54 holes a second cut can be performed, in order to reduce the field again. In case a golf player made the 36-hole cut, but afterwards missed the secondary cut, is designated as MDF player.

Majors : The four most prestigious golf tournaments of the year are called majors. Those are the US-Masters, the US-Open, the British Open, the US-PGA-Championship within the men's golf tournament. The women's major championships are at the moment the Kraft Nabisco Championship, the LPGA Championship, the U.S. Women's Open and the Evian Championship.

Make the cut : A lot of golf tournaments reduce the field with a so-called cut. In there, the top 70 golfers plus ties are selected and are allowed to move forward. The worser golf players need to go home. The cut usually takes place after two full rounds, thus after the 36th hole. Sometimes a second cut also takes place in order to reduce the field again, this one is made after the third round, meaning after hole 54. The expression make the cut refers to a golfer, who counts to the better players within the field, and is allowed to continue playing after the cut until the end of the tournament - thus he has the possibility to win the tournament.

Mallet : A special variation of putters is designed based on the model of a mallet – hence those putters are also designated with the term mallet.

Maltby playability factor (mpf) : Ralph Maltby, a golf club designer, invented a particular rating system called Maltby Playability Factor, abbreviated with MPF. Its main focus is on the ranking of golf clubs with regard on how simple or difficult they are for the different competences of golf players. The MPF plots the different golf clubs along a scale from the one which is simplest playable, or rather most forgiving to the golf club which is the most difficult to play, or rather least forgiving. In fact, there are six different categories, called Ultra Game Improvement, Super Game Improvement, Game Improvement, Conventional, Classic and Player Classic. As the MPF rating is sometimes modified, the latest version can always be downloaded at the website of Ralph Maltby.

Map : The common abbreviation for minimum adversed price is MAP. The minimum adversed price is the price manufacturers suggest for their products, and retailers can adverse with those prizes. In fact, retailers are allowed to sell the products even cheaper, but they aren't allowed to advertise any price lower. Sometimes manufacturers also give a MSRP, which means manufacturer's suggested retail price instead of or along with the MAP, but the MAP is usually lower than the MSRP.

Maraging steel : As maraging steel is a material, which is harder than traditional steel, it doesn't only exist in golf. But in there, it was used as clubface material in the early 2000s, because with this material the manufacturers could save weight. It was most commonly used for producing drivers and fairway woods, and sometimes also for the fabrication of irons. Meanwhile the maraging steel is not used any more, because most manufacturers changed to titanium as fabrication material.

Mark the ball : Mark the ball, has generally two different usages in golf. On the one hand side it refers to the actual act of marking the ball by writing on it. It can be any sign, letters or word, and it is done in order to recognize and identify the golf ball. This procedure is generally practiced, if two golfers play with the same type of golf ball. It is also specified within the Rules of Golf, Rule 6-5, which says that every golf player should generally mark his golf ball for identification reasons. The other meaning of the term marking the ball is, what golf players do in order to determine the location of the golf ball prior to picking it up. Basically, this process is generally permitted on putting greens, so that the golf ball doesn't impede the following golfers shot. Additionally this type of marking the ball is sometimes also allowed in special circumstances. It is exactly prescribed, how the marking process has to take place. The ball marker, a small, flat object, has to be placed behind the golf ball before it is lifted. And if the golf ball should be placed on the ground again, it is laid down directly in front of the ball marker – in this fashion it is guaranteed, that the ball has accurately the same position as before.

Marker : The term marker has several meanings in golf. On the one hand side it is another word for ball marker and therefore a little piece, which is used to determining the location of the golf ball before it is picked up. For this purpose, the marker needs to be laid down accurately behind the golf ball, and putting the golf ball down needs to happen exactly in front of the golf ball. In this manner, the golf ball is situated at the same point as before. Furthermore, marker is also the designation for the person who has to note down the score of its competitor within a stroke play.

Markers : Markers is the designation for two items determining the frontal border of a teeing area. Synonyms for that term are tee markers, blocks or tee blocks.

Marshal : The marshal on a golf course is basically the guard of it. His exercise is for example to keep the pace of play up, to respond on questions of golf players or to patrol the golf course. Marshals are usually volunteers and they are commonly remarkable because of their marked golf carts. The golfers mainly speed up and control themselves even more, if marshals are visible. But if golf players for example don't speed up, a marshal is allowed to force them. Additional designations for the marshall are golf ranger or ranger.

Mashie : Mashie is the designation for a former golf club. Its characteristics were basically similar to those of a modern 5-iron, especially the loft and the use were most equivalent. Furthermore the mashie was wooden-shafted and produced and used pre to the 20th-century. But in fact, it is wrong to call a today's 5-iron a mashie, because they are different golf clubs.

Mashie iron : The mashie iron was a wooden-shafted golf club. It was most commonly used in the pre-20th Century. In comparison to the modern golf clubs it mostly similar to the 4-iron.

Mashie niblick : The mashie niblick is a former golf club. As the mashie and the mashie iron, it was also wooden-shafted and most commonly produced and used before the 20th Century. Compared to nowadays golf clubs, the “mashie niblick” is most similar to the 7-iron.

Match : A match is in golf either a medal round or a golf game between two opponents.

Match play : This is a form of competition by holes. Each hole is worth one point no matter how many strokes one player beats another by.

Matchplayer : A Matchplayer is a golfer, who mainly prefers playing the game variation Match Play. Matchplayer can compete against each other within a single match play as well as in a match play foursome. In the end of the round, the winner is the Matchplayer or team with the lowest score.

Mdf : The abbreviation MDF is in golf used for the term Made cut did not finish. The term is most commonly used during the PGA Tour, because in there, a cut is made. Thus after the second round the top half of golfers and ties are allowed to move forward. The other ones need to go home. Sometimes there is also a second cut made after the third round in order to reduce the field once again. The golfers who “made” the first cut, but drop out at the second cut are designated with MDF, thus they made the cut, but did not finish.

Mechanics :  The mechanics of a golf swing or putting stroke. (Nick Faldo constantly works on the mechanics of his swing).

Medal day : A day, at which golf players are allowed to played a medal round in a competition format is designated as medal day.

Medal play : This is a form of competition decided by the overall number of strokes. This may also be referred to as stroke play.

Medalist : The winner of a stroke play is designated as medalist. This term has its origin on the one hand side in there, that he earns a medal, on the other hand side another name for stroke play is medal play, hence in both variations the winner is the medalist. Sometimes there are match play tournaments, which begin with one or two rounds of stroke play. The winner of those first stroke play rounds is again called medalist. Additionally those first stroke play rounds cut down the field into the Top 64 golf players.

Member's bounce : The member's bounce is the term for any bounce of the golf ball which is intentionally played and thereby improves a shot, that originally appeared to become an errant shot.

Miami scramble : A variation of the scramble is the Miami Scramble. The basic structure is, that four golfers play in one team. At first, all team members tee off and the best drive is selected by the team. The golf player whose golf ball is selected has to sit out for the next stroke, whereas all the other golfers in the team stroke from the position of the selected drive. Within one variation of the Miami Scramble, it is common that the golfer with the selected drive has to sit out until the whole group reaches the putting green. In this version the rules typically specify, that the group has to use at least four drives of each team member over the 18 holes. Another variation is closer to the florida scramble variation, meaning that the selected putt golfer only has to sit out for the next stroke and after that stroke a new best shot is selected and the golf player who shot this chosen one has to sit out for the next shot. The game continues in this fashion for all holes.

Mid iron : Mid iron was the term for a golf club in the past. It generally appeared in the pre-20th Century and had a wooden shaft. Meanwhile because of its loft, use and appearance it is comparable to a modern 2-iron.

Mid mashie : One version of historical golf clubs is called mid mashie. As the mashie it also had a wooden shaft, and was used in the pre 20th Century. In comparison to the modern golf clubs, the golf club is most similar to today's 3-irons.

Mid-amateur : The mid-amateur is a designation for a golfer, who is an competitive amateur golfer. He mainly doesn't put efforts in professional tournaments, but in fact, many of them turn professionals after their 50th birthday. Furthermore the term is also used for USGA tournaments for amateurs who are 25 and older, on national side for men and women. Additionally the term is most commonly utilized within the USA.

Middle irons : In golf jargon, the term middle irons refers to the iron scale

Middle or mid-irons :  The 5-7 irons. (He was very accurate with his middle irons, which helped set up a lot of birdies.)

Middle wedge : A golf club, which is mainly a medal iron. Characteristically is its loft between the one of a pitching wedge and a sand wedge.

Minimum adversed price : The term minimum adversed price is commonly known with its abbreviation MAP. In fact, the expression refers to a price which the manufacturers propose for their golf clubs. The retailers are allowed to adverse with those prices at minimum. That's the sting, because the retailers are allowed to sell the products even cheaper but not to make any advertisement below this limit. There is also a manufacturer's suggested retail price, short MSRP, which some manufacturers present instead or along with the minimum adversed price. The MAP is generally lower than the MSRP.

Misread : When used in golf, the term misread refers to the defective estimation of the putting line.

Miss the cut/missed cut (mc) : In golf tournaments it is a common procedure to cut the field in two halves after the second round, thus after 36 holes. The better half is allowed to move forward, whereas the other half has to go home. In case there is only one cut, and the golfer is in the worser half, he is said to miss the cut or designated with MC. Since 2008, there is a further expression if there are two cuts and a golfer made the first cut, but missed the second one

Mixed : The term mixed refers to mixed genders in a team, meaning both genders, men and women in one team. There are also special tournament formats, which are specialized on a mixed format, thus in there it is not allowed to play with the same gender in one team.

Mixed foursome : The mixed foursome is a special alternate-shot format, in which it is only allowed to play with both genders in one team. Thus in fact there are two teams playing in the foursome format, but each team is composed of one man and one woman.

Modern takeaway : Modern takeaway is a golf jargon designation. It generally describes the hands, arms and wrists of a golf player moving away from the golf ball at the beginning of the backswing. Within this procedure, the involved parts of the body always maintain the same relationship as during the address. Another designation for the “modern takeaway” is one-piece takeaway.

Modified pinehurst : Modified Pinehurst is the designation for a particular golf competition format. The basic structure is, that four golfers play in two teams. At first, each golfer tees off with his own golf ball, and afterwards each team selects the best drive, because the teams then moves forward in alternate-shot fashion with this best ball until it's holed out. This procedure is repeated, until the end of the game. A speciality about the match format is, that it can be either played as match play or as stroke play. Furthermore tournament format is also known as greensomes, Scotch Foursomes or Canadian Foursomes.

Modified stableford : The modified stableford is a competition format, with a particular scoring system. In there, the points are awarded with regard on the golfers' performance per hole and penalties per hole. It is the tournament committees definition, how exactly the points are awarded. But as an example, within The International, a former PGA Tour event, a double eagle brought eight points, an eagle five points, and a birdie two points. In case a golfer made par on a hole he neither received points, nor got a penalty. But if he shot a bogey, he received a penalty by subtracting one point, and with score of a double bogey or worser the golf player lost three points. The format can either be played with or without the use of the handicaps.

Moment of inertia : The term moment of inertia, short MOI, has in fact two different meanings. Because it can refer to the resistance of clubheads to twist around the axis. On the other hand it can also refer to golf balls or shafts, for the same reason, thus the resistance of them to twisting around the axis. In reference to the clubhead, a higher moment of inertia will be more resistant to twist, then a clubhead with a lower MOI. Thus a high MOI also reduces the impact of mis-hits, because the influence of mis-hits for the shot is decreased. Therefore manufacturers meanwhile advert their clubs as being more forgiving, and that includes a high MOI. In fact, for golf players with a high handicap it is therefore recommended to buy a golf club with a higher MOI.

Monday qualifying : Monday qualifying or Monday qualifier refers to a qualifying tournament. It is played before every pro tour event, and awarded by the places of the tour event, thus it is the determination of who is permitted to play in the tournament. It is usually composed as a stroke play because the following tournament is usually played in match play fashion. In there, a round of 18 holes is played and it takes place on the Monday in the tournament week, therefore it earned its name. Open qualifiers or Event qualifiers are common synonyms for the Monday qualifier.

Money ball : A particular competition format is called money ball. In there, groups with four golfers in every team play against each other. The first step within the game is, that all members tee off. In order to create a team score, two of those four scores are putt together and become the team score. The two scores consist of the money ball player who was determined before and the lowest score among the other three scores. Within the game, the onus of the money ball rotates, so that every golfer in the team has to take the responsibility for some holes. There are even more variations of the money ball, and individual ones can also be made. lone ranger, pink ball, yellow ball, pink lady or devil ball are further synonyms for the competition format.

Motor-caddy : A particular devise, as the name says it is a caddy for transporting a golfers bag. It differentiates from traditional caddies as it is usually battery-powered and most commonly it is controlled with a remote.

Mouth wedge : In golf jargon, mouth wedge refers to a golfer who doesn't stop talking at the whole round. Therefore he can influence another golfers game and is said to have a large mouth wedge. Furthermore mouth wedge is also an expression for golf players who always talk about their excellent golf skills which are actually poor ones.

Movable obstruction : The opposite of an immovable obstruction is a movable obstruction. A obstacle counts as movable, if it can be moved and thereby doesn't unduly delay the play, cause any damage or requires unreasonable effort. In case such a movable obstruction influences the swing or the stance of a golfer or his golf ball is in or on the golf ball, the obstruction can be moved without penalty. Within the Rules of Golf, the “movable obstructions” and the behavior with them can be found in Rule 24.

Moving day : In case a golf tournament lasts four days, the third and therefore the second last day is called Moving Day.

Msrp : The manufacturer's suggested retail price, short MSRP is the proposed price for an object. The manufacturer suggested it to the retailer, but in fact, the retailer can anyways set the price he wants to, thus it is not obligatory the price the costumers will see in the shops. Including the MSRP in the prices gives the costumers the ability to compare the prices and have and idea about the prices, thus it is a welcome procedure.

Mud ball : A golf ball is designated as mud ball, if it has soil, mud, or any type of dirt at its surface. This can affect the flight enormously, but usually cleaning the golf ball without penalty is only allowed at the putting green. But during extraordinary weather conditions an exception may be stated within the local rules.

Mulligan :  The custom of hitting a second ball -- without penalty -- on a hole, usually the 1st tee. (Mulligans are not allowed according to the Rules of Golf).

Mulligans : Mulligans is a competition format including free shots. In there, the handicaps of the golfers are converted in do-overs. The particular thing about it is, that the mulligans are not connected to any holes and can be used whenever a golfer wants to. The game can be additionally played in tandem with the handicap-strokes, but most commonly it is played with two thirds of the handicap in order to make sure the golfers are careful with using their free shots. Other designations for mulligans are Criers and Whiners, No Alibis, Wipe Out, Play it Again, Sam or Replay.

Muni : Muni is the abbreviation for municipal courses. Those courses are owned by a local government entity, meaning a city or municipality, therefore it got its name. Particular about munis is, that they are open for every golf player without restrictions and are usually the least expensive golf courses in a area. Nevertheless they are sometimes a little bit cheaper for residents of the city or the municipality which owns the golf course.

Municipal course : A public course which is owned by a local government agency.

Murphy : When used in golf, the term Murphy refers to a side bet. Prior to the side bet, the group has to agree on playing Murphy, the bet amount has to be set, the area, from which a Murphy can be declared and it has to be clarified, whether the bet is automatically accepted if invoked. If all this is clarified, the bet itself can only be declared, if the golf ball is not yet on the putting green. In Murphy, a golf player bets, that he can get up and down, meaning one chip, one putt to hole out, or even a chip-in, when he chips from off the green.

Muscleback : Muscleback is in golf the designation for the particular clubhead of some irons. The irons itself are therefore also called muscleback irons. The clubheads can either be forged or casted and characteristically is their full back, and that they provide a greater feedback to a golfer but the golf player has to strike the ball with the center of the clubface by using those irons correctly. With their higher center of gravity, muscleback irons have a lower trajectory which is preferred by highly skilled golfers. Furthermore they also have a lower moment of inertia, which means lower forgiveness in comparison to cavityback irons. To summarize, the muscleback irons are more likely suitable for lower handicap golfers, because they have most commonly the skills to have greatest advantage of its characteristics.

Mutt and jeff : As Mutt and Jeff is a comic strip focused on two buddies, a small one and a big one, the golf tournament format or side bet Mutt and Jeff does the same. It only focuses on the big and small holes, thus the par-5 holes, and the par-3 holes. The round is completed, when the net score for each golfer on all par-3 and par-5 holes is registered. The golf player with the lowest net score on those holes wins the side bet or tournament.

N.O.S.E. Tournament : Within a N.O.S.E. tournament only scores of the holes which begin with one of those letters count. The golf players firstly play the full round, but in the end only the N.O.S.E. holes count to the final score, meaning only nine holes, hole one, six, seven, eight, nine, eleven, sixteen, seventeen and eighteen count. Sometimes the side bet “low putts” is additionally used in order to avoid ties.

Narrow fairway : Narrow Fairway refers to a fairway on a golf course, which hardly has a limited set of yards across.

Nassau :  A competition in which points are awarded for winning the front nine, back nine and overall 18. (Nassaus are the most popular form of betting game.)

Nasties : Nasties is a side bet in golf. In general, it can be used by a group of golfers, no matter, how big the group is. The Nasty is basically about holing out from anywhere off the green, thus it can be with an approach shot, a bunker shot, a pitch shot or even a hole-in-one. It is important to clarify prior to the start, which value a Nasty has, and whether the side bet is even used within the game. A more popular name for Nasties might be its synonym Uglies.

Nationwide tour : The famous Web.com Tour changed its name a few times. As From the beginning 1990 on it was named Ben Hogan Tour, after three seasons it got renamed a few times until, in 2003 it received its name Nationwide Tour for 9,5 seasons. Finally, in 2012, the tour obtained the meanwhile familiar name Web.com Tour.

Nearest point of relief : In case, a golf ball fell in or on an immovable obstruction, lies in abnormal ground conditions or is situated on the incorrect putting green, a golf player is permitted to drop the golf ball without penalty. The procedure has to take place within the length of a golf club of the nearest point of relief, so that afterwards the golfer is able to play the golf ball without any obstruction but the golf ball isn't situated nearer to the cup. Furthermore the nearest point of relief is also called closest point of relief.

Net : The net score, or short net is the resulting score of a golfer's round with the consideration of his handicap. Thus the net score indicates the gross score with the subtracted handicap strokes. As an example, if a golfer's gross score within one round was 100, and the golfer's handicap is 36, his net score is 64. The opposite of the net score is the gross score.

Niblick : Niblick is the designation for a further golf club. It was used before the 20th Century and characteristically for the niblick was its wooden shaft. In comparison to today's golf club it is most similar to a 9-iron.

Nicklauses : A side bet in golf is called Nicklauses. It is named after the golfer Jack Nicklaus, who was famous for his powerful drives. Therefore, the winner of the bet is in general the golfer in a group who hit the longest drive on each hole. It is important to clarify prior to the play, whether the bet is in use or not, and if it is, which amount it has. Additional specifications can be, that for winning the bet, long drives has to be in the fairway, and subsequently to that, if no golf player shot his golf ball to the fairway, the bet and its pot are carried over to the next hole, and therefore added up at the hole's pot. Meanwhile the bet is synonymously called after Tiger Woods (Tigers), after John Daly (Dalys) or after Bubba Watson (Bubbas).

Nike tour : From 1993 until 1999, today's Web.com Tour was called Nike Tour. The name appeared, because Nike, Inc. was the biggest sponsor of the tour in this time period. After further changes of the name, from June 2012 on, the tour got renamed in Web.com Tour.

Nine points : A particular golf format is called nine points. It is basically invented for groups of three golfers and the general structure is, that at stake nine points per hole are reachable. The three golfers are separated in the best score, the middle score and the high score at each cup and therefore they receive points in a prescribed order. The golfer with the best score earns five points, the golf player with the middle score gets three points, whereas the golf player with the highest score on a hole earns one point. If two golfers stroke a tie, at the middle score, so that one golfer still has the best score, the best scorer receives five points, and each of the other two golf players earns two points. If it is the other way round, that two golfers stroke a tie at the best score and one golfer shot the high score, he earns one point, whereas the two tie players receive four points each. In case all three players tied, the nine points are split, thus each golfer earns three points.

Nine-iron : The so-called Nine-iron is a golf club with the highest loft of all irons. The Nine-iron is a golf club which is used for shots with short-distances.

Nines : The expression nines is basically only an abbreviation for the golf format nine points. Therefore it refers to a game for groups of three golf players. It received its name, because there are nine points per cup reachable, which are split in the three golfers in a prescribes order. Thus the lowest scorer at a hole earns five points, the golfer who stroke the middle score receives three points and the highest scorer at an individual hole gets one point. In case the golfers all stroke a tie, each player receives three points for that hole. If two golf players shot a tie at the best score at a hole, they both get four points and the third golfer with the highest score earns one point. And in case two golfers made a tie at a hole for the lower score, the best scorer receives five points and the other golf players get two points each.

Nineteenth hole : Another term for the clubhouse or in particular the bar at the clubhouse. This is Waggle’s favorite hole!

No alibis : A competition format which includes do-overs, so-called mulligans, is called No Alibis. Characteristically for the game is, that the handicaps of the golf players are transformed into free shots. And additionally there is no strict regulation about where the do-overs have to be used, thus the golf players can use them whenever they want to. Furthermore the format can also be played including full or partly handicap strokes, and therefore it is usually played with two thirds of the handicap-strokes. Further expressions for No Alibis are Mulligans, Wipe Out, Replay, Play it Again, Sam or Criers and Whiners.

No card (nc) : In case a golfer doesn't submit a scorecard after a round, he is registered as No Card, or short NC for those 18 holes. The only exception for that is, if the golf player resigned because of a injury.

No putts : No Putts is the expression for a particular golf game. It can be either played as tournament format or in a group of golf players. The general structure in no putts is, that putts don't count. Thus all strokes, instead of putts, during the round are ranked. In order figure out the final score without putts, the putts are noted at the scorecard and subtracted from the final score. The golf player with the lowest remaining stroke score wins the golf tournament. A further synonym for no putts is Everything but Putts.

Nobble : In golf, the term nobble refers to the procedure of either topping a golf ball or catching it on the upper half. This causes the so-called Nobbler shot, which is a weak and at the same time low running shot.

Non-selective perimeter weighting : A clubhead is designated as non-selective perimeter weighting, if it has an equal weight over toe and heel of a club head.

Nutted : In case a golfer hit his golf ball exactly on the sweetspot, this is called nutted in slang term.

Observer : When used in golf, the term observer refers to a person whose job it is to make sure that a match or round is played pursuant to the Rules of Golf.

Obstacle stroke value : Obstacle stroke value is a designation used within the handicap system of the USGA. It is basically a numerical statement of the playability and difficulty of obstacles or hazards at an individual golf course, like for instance bunkers, water or trees. The United States Golf Association designates those obstacles and hazards as obstacle factors and classifies them in order to create the obstacle stroke value. Within the categorization, the USGA also considers the psychological effect, meaning how the feeling of the golfer in prior to the shot is. The value is important for the regulation of the course and slope rating.

Obstruction : Obstruction is the designation for any factitiously item on a golf course. Objects on a golf course, that intentionally designate any part at the golf course don't count as obstruction. But among obstructions there is the differentiation between movable obstructions and immovable obstructions, and with differentiation there is also a different handling in relation with them. How to deal with each of them properly is defined within Rule 24 of the Rules of Golf as well as the official definition of obstructions.

Odds and evens : A particular golf game format is called Odds and Evens. In there, the basic structure prescribes a two person team and the golf partners hit one golf ball in alternate shot style. In contrast to the alternate shot format, where tee players simply tee off alternately, at odds and evens one golfer tees off at every odd hole, whereas the other one tees off at even holes. The golf player who has to tee off at the first hole, thus the first odd hole, is designated by a random method.

Off the deck : When used in golf, off the deck is the designation for a procedure, where a golfer doesn't hit a drive off a tee, but off the fairway or ground.

Off-green putting :  When a player elects to putt from off the green rather than chip. (She favored off-green putting because she lacked confidence in her chipping and pitching).

Offset :  A measure of the distance between the leading edge of the hosel and the leading edge of the clubface. (The added offset on his new irons helped reduce his slicing).

On the charge : If a golfer asserts himself within the final round of a stroke play by constantly scoring birdies, he is designated to be on the charge.

On the dance floor : A golf ball is said to be on the dance floor in golf slang, when he stayed on the green.

On the screws : “On the screws” is a term in golf jargon, meaning the golf club hits the golf ball exactly on the sweetspot. The expression is most commonly used for woods or drivers.

One club : One Club is a well-known golf game in general used as match among friends, but sometimes it is also a tournament format. The basic structure of the game is already explained with its name, because in there you are allowed to only use one single golf club all over the round. If the game is in use within a golf tournament, it can either be prescribed which golf club it has to be, or it is the golfer's individual decision. Within a golf match between buddies, the golfers most commonly chose individually which golf club will be their one club. The biggest advantage of the game is, that a golfer exercises himself because of this challenge. Usually the 5-iron or the 6-iron are selected for the game, because their prerequisites fit the best.

One person captain's choice : Within a One Person Captain's Choice, there is only one golfer in each team. The basic structure is, that this one golfer is allowed to stroke twice every time, thus to tee off two times directly one after another, afterwards he decides which drive was the better one and hits the second shot again with both golf balls consecutively, but both from the further best position and so on. As this game variation can take a lot of time, a further specification is, that the golf player only tees off once, if the first drive was a good one.

One putt : If a golf player only used one putt, but nevertheless holed out, this procedure is called one putt.

One-piece takeaway :  Sometimes called the "modern" takeaway, it describes the beginning of the backswing when the hands, arms and wrists move away from the ball, maintaining the same relationship they had at address. (Sam Snead is credited with developing the one-piece takeaway).

Oozles and foozles : Oozles and Foozles is a side bet in golf. Oozle is a success, foozle is a failure. It is most commonly played on par-3 holes. There are three different versions of playing the bet. Prior to the start of the round, it has to be agreed-upon, which value it has. In the first version at a par-3 hole, the golfer who is closest to the pin after the tee shot earns the oozle and wins the bet value – but in order to win that, the regulation is, that the tee shot has to arrive on the putting green or even hole out. The golfer who has to putt three times, failed and therefore receives the foozle and loses the betting unit. This process is repeated at every hole and if no golf player made it on the green, the bet is taken over and added up at the next hole. Within the second side bet version, the player who shot closest to the pin at a par-3 hole wins the oozle, but in case he 3-putts, he loses it and receives the foozle. The third variation defines, that in case all golf players of the group want to do so, they are permitted to play the game at every hole and not only at the par-3 holes. As there are longer holes in play, the golfer who plays closest to the pin even on the green in regulation already earns the oozle. Oozles and Foozles is obviously also playable in combination with various golf formats or side bets.

Oozlum : The Oozlum is a version of funnies. It is played on par-3 holes and the target is to reach the green in regulation in one shot and afterwards uses only one or two putts. If he is in a tie with par or even better, he wins the Oozlum. In case more than one golfer managed to do so, the winner is who was closest to the pin after the tee off, and if no golf player wins, the bet is carried over to the following par-3 hole and doubles the amount of this next hole.

Open : In golf, the term open designates tournaments which are generally open to all golf players and don't restrict groups of golfers, not like for example only golfers who received an invitation are allowed to play. But in fact, as Opens are also sometimes professional tournaments and high-level amateur tournaments, even there is an exception, so that they have eligibility requirements like for instance a maximum handicap index. Sometimes qualifying tournaments are required prior to an Open. The origin of the term was the first Open Championship in 1860, which was truly open to any professional or amateur golfer who payed the entry fee and traveled to the tournament.

Open clubface :  When, either at address or during the swing, the heel of the clubhead is leading the toe, causing the clubface to point to the side of the target. (An open clubface caused him to hit his approach shot to the side of the green.)

Open grip :  Also referred to as a weak grip, it is when the hands are turned counter-clockwise on the club. (His open grip made it difficult for him to hook the ball).

Open qualifiers : Open qualifiers is a term for an entitling tournament. It is performed prior to the pro tour events and embodies the qualification for the tour event. As the pro tour is played in match play format, the tournament is usually organized as regular stroke play round. Furthermore, the open qualifiers is also known as event qualifiers or, as it is proceeded on Monday in the tournament week, as Monday qualifying.

Open stance :  When the left or lead foot is pulled back farther from the target line than the rear or right foot. This stance generally helps promote a left-to-right ball flight. (Since she played from an open stance, it was easy for her to fade the ball around the large tree).

Open-to-closed :  A description of the movement of the clubface when a player fans it open on the backswing and then closes it at impact. (When his timing was correct, his open-to-closed swing produced wonderful shots).

Opposite-field tournament : In case there are two tournaments at the same day and time within a pro golf tour, the field is separated in the higher level golfers who play at one event, and the weaker field which plays at the lesser tournament. This lesser tournament is called opposite-field tournament as the field in there plays oppositely to the bigger tournament. The opposite-field tournament is for example created by the PGA Tour, if they have the feeling a lot of their top golfers won't qualify for the British Open in order to provide a chance to receive money and points.

Order of play : The order of play is what it sounds like. It is the designation who is allowed to stroke first and who plays afterwards, often also designated as who has the honor to stroke first. Within the Rules of Golf, the order of play is regulated in Rule 10. In a match play, it is usual, that, at the first teeing ground, a draw or a lot decides who plays first. Afterwards, at the second shot and the following shots, the specification is, that whose golf ball is farther from the cup, has the honor to play first. And if both golf balls have the same distance to the hole, it is – as in the beginning – decided by draw or lot. The side who wins the hole, is allowed to stroke first at the subsequent hole. In case the sides scored a tie at a hole, the golfer who had just had the honor takes it over and is again allowed to play first. Within a stroke play, the order of play is determined – same as in a match play – by the draw or by lot. The golfer who won the hole has the honor at the next hole and in case two golfers had the same score, the previous order of play is carried over. During the play of a hole, the golf ball which lies farthest to the hole, has to be played first.

Ostrich : The expression Ostrich refers to a tremendous phenomenon in golf. In fact, it is a score five under par. This is only possible by stroking a hole-in-one at a par-6 hole, and for that reason the Ostrich is so unusual.

Out : The term out has several meanings in golf. On the one hand side it is used for the golf ball which is farthest away from the hole. The golf player who owns this golf ball, is also the one who's allowed to stroke first according to the golf etiquette. This meaning of the expression out is additionally also known as away. Furthermore, the other meaning of out is, that it designates the first nine holes of a golf course, thus the front nine. As out is a short expression, it is often noted at scorecards. The opposite of out in this variation is in.

Out of turn : Playing out of turn refers to the order of play. In case a golfer strokes, even if it wasn't his turn but the turn of his opponent, this is designated as out of turn. In a match play there is no penalty for this procedure, but the opponent can instantly demand the golfer to cancel the stroke and replay the golf ball at the same location where the ball was played before. In a stroke play format this is not usual, but in case the tournament committee notices, that any golfers have agreed-upon on playing out of turn in order to advantage one of the players, all concerned golf players are disqualified.

Out-of-bounds : The area outside of the golf course limits in which play is prohibited. If you hit the ball out of bounds you must hit again from the same spot and take a penalty stroke.

Outside : A golf ball can said to be outside, if it is the remotest from the cup. In case it has this position, the golfer who owns the golf ball is allowed to play first towards the hole. On the other hand side, in case the golf ball is on the other side of the target line, it is also said to be outside.

Outside agency : Everything, a person or an object, that isn't part of a current golf match is an outside agency. Spectators are an example of the outside agency.

Outside-to-in :  A description of a swing path when the clubhead approaches the ball from outside the target line and then continues to the inside of that line following impact. (His outside-to-in swing path allowed him to hit his approach shot very near the pin, which was cut on the right side of the green.)

Outward half : The outward half are the first nine holes of an 18-hole golf course, thus the holes 1-9. Other designations for those holes are for example front nine or outward nine, whereas the opposite of it is designated as inward half, back nine or inward nine.

Outward nine : The holes 1-9 of an 18-hole golf course are often designated as outward nine. Further terms describing this half of the golf course are outward half or front nine. By contrast, the holes 10-18 are for example called inward half or back nine.

Over par : If a score on an individual hole or rather on a complete round is higher than the given par on it, this score is designated to be over par. It is common to speak of over par in relation to par, meaning in case the score was one stroke greater than par, it is said to be 1-over par, if it is two strokes higher than par, it is also said and denoted to be 2-over par and so forth.

Overclub :  To pick the wrong club, usually for an approach shot, causing the ball to go over the green. (He overclubbed his approach to the 18th green, and his ball came to rest in a shrub.)

Overclubbing : Using a club that will hit the ball farther than necessary.

Overlapping grip : The overlapping grip is a golf grip which is probably the most common golf grip among pro golfers. It consists of positioning the hands on the golf club so that the little finger of one the bottom hand lies either on the index finger of the top hand or between the index and the middle finger of this hand. Vardon Grip can be used synonymously for overlapping grip.

Overseeding : A particular maintenance process on golf courses is called overseeding. In there, the seeds of the grass are distributed all over the already existing grass. Thereby one type of grass gets replaced with another one. This is usually done in order to advance a new growth and for seasonal turf types. Overseeding helps to keep the golf course available for golfers to play on in any season of the year.

Owgr : OWGR is the abbreviation for Official World Golf Ranking. As the name says, it designates the world ranking in golf. Most commonly the term OWGR is written in combination with a number and this number shows the current position of the golfer within the ranking list.

Pace :  The speed of the golf swing (He had a beautiful pace to his swing) or the speed of the greens (The greens at the PGA Championship had a quick pace, which the better putters favored).

Paddle grip :  A putting grip with a flat surface where the thumbs rest. (Ben Crenshaw's old putter had a paddle grip).

Pairings : The term pairings refers to groups with two golfers in it.

Par :  The score an accomplished player is expected to make on a hole, either a three, four or five. (The 12th hole at Augusta National is one of the most famous par 3s in golf).

Par 3 course : A particular golf course design consisting only of par-3 holes is called par 3 course. It is most commonly nine holes in full length and is often played by golf beginners as well as by skilled golfers. The par 3 courses are famous as they are a great option on training the short game, playing a fast round or for beginners in order to work on everything in a smaller surrounding.

Par in : Par in is a golf term for describing that a golfer has to score par on all remaining holes.

Par is your partner : Par Is Your Partner is a specification in some golf tournaments, limiting a golfer's or the team's maximum score per hole to a net par in order to save time. Thus in case the golfer or team can not beat the net par score any more, they pick up the golf ball and move on at the next hole. Par Is Your Partner is usually played in a stroke play with using handicaps, but it is differenced by using full or only partial handicaps. Furthermore a particular point system can also be in use instead of the stroke play format.

Par or out : A golf game or side bet for low handicappers is called par or out. It can be either played in a tournament or among a group of golfers. In case a golfer made a bogey or worse, he drops out. The winner is, who scored par or better at each hole. Usually handicaps are used, because if not, the golfers who play par or out need to be very high skilled. In case it is a side bet, the golfer who goes the longest without making a bogey or worse is the winner of the bet.

Par-3 hole : A par 3 hole is one, at which an expert golfer only needs 3 strokes to hole out. As there are always two putts included at the par of a hole, the expert golfer would only need one stroke to reach the green and two putts to hole out. After the offered guidelines of the USGA, the par-3 holes for men are up to 250 yards long, whereas the ones for women are up to 210 yards in length, but there are no specifications concerning their length. Within an 18 hole golf course there are usually two to six par-3 holes, most commonly it is four, thus two in the front nine and two in the back nine holes.

Par-4 hole : Par-4 holes are the ones for which an expert golfer usually needs four strokes in total, meaning two shots for reaching the green and two putts at the putting green for holing out. In length those holes are not specified, but after the USGA guidelines they can be 251 to 470 yards long and for women 211 to 400 yards. There are most commonly ten par-4 holes at a 18-hole golf course.

Par-5 hole : Par-5 holes are holes, at which an expert golfer needs five shots to hole out. That means he needs 3 strokes to reach the putting green and two putts for holing out. As there are no rules about the length of golf holes, but the USGA guidelines propose a length of 471 up to 690 yards for men and 401 to 575 yards for women. As par-6 holes are rather rare, the par-5 holes are most commonly the longest holes at 18-hole golf courses. There are mostly often four par-5 holes at the standard golf courses.

Par-6 hole : The longest holes at a golf course are par-6 holes, but also the most uncommon ones. In order to hole out, an expert golfer would need six strokes at a par-6 hole, thus four of them to reach the putting green and two putts for holing out. After the USGA guidelines, those holes have a distance from over 690 yards for men, and 575 yards for women.

Parkland-course : Parkland course is the designation for a golf course with a park-like design. Thus powerful green fairways, fast greens and plenty of trees. A lot of PGA – and european tour courses are parkland courses. The Augusta National Golf Club is probably the most famous example for this course design.

Partner : In case golfers play together on the same side in the same group, they are designated as partners.

Path :  The direction the club travels during the swing or the putting stroke. This is best observed from an overhead view. (When they studied the videotapes in the learning center, they saw that she had a pronounced outside-to-in swing path).

Payne steward award : The Payne Steward Award is named after Payne Steward, an 11-time winner on the PGA tour who died 1999. It is annually awarded by the PGA Tour to a PGA member to honor the member for his engagement about work and tradition in golf. Thus in order to receive the award, the golf player doesn't have to currently play as an active golfer on the PGA tour. The award started in 2000 and it consists of a trophy, which is a sculpture of Steward, and a charity price in the amount of $ 300,000. The recipient can chose which charity and which charities associated with Steward will receive the money.

Pebble beach golf links : The Pebble Beach Golf Links is one of the most popular 18-hole golf courses in the world. It is located in Pebble Beach, Peninsula, looking over the Pacific Ocean. The AT&T Pebble Beach National Pro-Am on the PGA Tour is annually hosted in there, as same as major tournaments like the U.S. Open.

Peeking : When used in golf, the expression peeking refers to a golfer who looks up before the impact because in order to observe the shot. The term is most commonly used in association with short putts.

Peg : Peg is a synonym for tee. It is a little wooden or plastic tool which can be inserted in the ground in order to put the golf ball on top of it before the shot.

Penal : Penal is the designation for a particular golf hole. For scoring par, the golfer has usually no alternative than stroking predefined shots. In case the golf player fails on doing so, his golf ball will drop into severe hazards.

Penalty : In case a golfer violated against rules, lost for example a golf ball or went out of bounds, he receives a penalty. Those are extra strokes which are summed up with the current score of the golfer. It can also be called penalty stroke.

Penalty stroke : An additional stroke which is added to a golfer’s score for a rules violation, going out of bounds, losing a ball, or various other situations.

Pendulum stroke :  In putting, a stroke that moves the clubhead back and forth on a constant line, without deviation. (His pendulum stroke made him a very effective putter).

Peoria system : The Peoria System is a special tournament variation, mostly used in charity events or company outings. In there, prior to the start of the tournament, the committee secretly selects six of the 18 holes, but the competitors don't know which holes. Usually those are two of every kind, thus two par-3, par-4 and par-5 holes - one of each type in the front nine and one of each type in the back nine. After the golfers played the whole round, without knowing which holes are the important ones for their score, the tournament committee announces the Peoria holes. The actual score is calculated in a predetermined way

Perfect round : Perfect round is a golf round of 18 holes, where the golf player scored a birdie or something better at every single hole. On an average par 72 the final score would be 54. Remarkable is, that no professional golfer has ever made a “perfect round” within a professional event.

Perfecto : A particular betting game in golf is called perfecto. In order to fulfill the requirements of a perfecto, a golfer at first has to tee off and reach the fairway with his drive, then his approach shot has to reach the green and afterwards he either has to use two putts for par or one putt for a birdie. All that has to happen on the same hole. Prior to the start, the regulations of the bet, like for example either it is only played from holes 7-9 and 16-18, or all over the round, which amount the bet has and which individual specifications the golfers want to add. As it is a demanding game, perfecto fits the best for highly skilled golfers.

Perimeter weighting : The perimeter weighting refers to the distribution of weight of a golf club around the club. The perimeter weighting is most commonly proceeded at irons, but can apply at other golf clubs, too. The weight in the iron lies in outer areas of the clubhead in order to change the center of gravity position, the moment of inertia, the amount of flex and the feeling at the impact. Fulfilling all this criteria, the perimeter weighted irons are more forgiving and therefore easier to play with in opposite to the musclebacks which aren't perimeter weighted and therefore difficult to hit properly.

Persimmon : Persimmon is the term for a particular wood found in the USA. Clubheads for drivers are produced with this special wood.

Pga : PGA is the abbreviation for Professional Golfers' Association. Those are men's associations and there are several PGAs worldwide, the most famous ones are the Professional Golfers' Association of America and the Professional Golfers' Association of Great Britain and Ireland. The similar structure for women is called Ladies Professional Golf Association, abbreviated to LPGA.

Pga tour : PGA TOUR is the organizer of the world-famous and main professional golf tours in North America for men, like the PGA Tour, Web.com Tour, Champions Tour, and PGA Tours of Canada, China and Latinoamérica. It is important to know, that even it is called PGA TOUR, because the PGA established it, it is nowadays independent of the PGA.

Pick up : To pick up is the expression to lift the golf ball and not playing forward on a hole. There are several reasons for this procedure, like if a lot of time and strokes expired so that playing forward wouldn't be profitable and the subsequent group would have to wait.

Pick up sticks : A particular variation of a match play game is called Pick Up Sticks. The basic structure is, that there are two golfers playing against each other. In case a golfer wins a hole, his opponent is allowed to remove one golf club from the winner's golf bag. There can be the specification that any stick instead of the putter can be selected and removed, but it don't has to be like that. As the golf clubs with which a golfer is most comfortable will be removed first, it is a challenging and creativity demanding game.

Pils : When used in golf, PILS is an abbreviation for Pure In Line Square. This refers to a particular method of putting, in which a pendulum movement from the shoulders is implicated. As a result the golfer gets rid of an independent hand or arm motion and it helps keeping the putter square through the putt.

Pin : This is the flagstick or the pole that is in the cup.

Pin placement : The Pin Placement is a term referring to the position of the cup in the putting green. Thus whether it is rather situated in the front, center, back or on the right or left side of the green. At some golf courses there are pin sheets which show the pin placement of each hole. Another synonymously expression is hole location.

Pin sheet : A pin sheet is a paper where each putting green with the location of the flagstick is marked. There are generally only some golf courses which provide a pin sheet. With the help of a pin sheet golfers can size up their approach shots. The pin sheet is sometimes also designated as hole sheet.

Pinch shot :  A shot played around the green in which a player strikes the ball with a crisp, clean descending blow. (She pinched the ball off a perfect lie and holed the shot).

Pin-high : Pin High is an expression referring to the approach shot or rather how far it went onto the green. A pin high is a shot, where the golf ball comes to rest with the pin, thus the shot wasn't too short or too long, but in fact it can be located further away from the pin at the left or right side.

Pinhurst resort : The Pinehurst Resort is a famous golf resort consisting of eight golf courses. As it is situated in the Village of Pinehurst it is called Pinehurst Resort. The most legendary one is the No. 2, which is a design of Donald Ross and already hosted a lot of U.S. Opens.

Pinhurst system : Pinehurst System refers to a team competition format. It received its name because it was invented at Pinehurst Resort. There are basically two teams and two golfers in there. Both golf players of the team first tee off. Then they both make a second stroke but use the golf ball of the other one. After the second shot they select the better ball and move forward in alternate-shot fashion with this golf ball until it's holed out. Every team repeats this procedure at every hole of the round. The golfers can decide prior to playing the game to play it in stroke play or match play format. Additionally, as Dick Chapman invented the System, it is synonymously also called Chapman System. Furthermore it is - rather rare - also called American Foursomes.

Pink lady : Pink Lady or Pink ball is a competition format in golf. There are basically four golfers in a group and at each hole one of the golfers plays with a pink golf ball. This golfer is designated as Pink Lady. For creating the team score, two scores are added up, one of them is the score of the pink golf ball. The other score is the lowest score among the other group members. The title Pink Lady in combination with the pink golf ball changes at every hole, so that each of the four golf players in the team has to play it a few times. Further individual specifications can be agreed prior to teeing off. Additionally Pink Lady is known as money ball, lone ranger or yellow ball.

Pinnie : The pinnie or pinnies is a side bet which is - if it is in effect - automatically awarded. As there are different variations of the pinnie, it depends on what the golfers agreed-upon. On the one hand side a pinnie can either be awarded to a golf player who holes out a putt where the distance is longer than the length of the pin stick. The other variation is, that a golfer reached a pinnie, in case an approach shot reached the putting green inside the length of the flagstick. The golfers have to agree prior to the start of the game, whether pinnies are in effect, if they are, which version it is, and obviously also which amount one of them has.

Pistol grip :  A grip, usually on a putter, that is built up under the left or top hand. (He had a pistol grip placed on his new putter).

Pitch : A short high arcing shot that lands on the green and usually stops quickly.

Pitch and putt : The designation Pitch and Putt refers to a golf course which only provides very short par-3 holes. Therefore the golfer has the possibility to pitch for the shots with longer distances and putt at regular putt distances. Hence the name pitch and putt.

Pitch and run : Same as a pitch but hit with a lesser lofted club which causes it to roll farther.

Pitch mark : Pitch mark is the designation for depressions or hollows on the putting surface which are caused by balls landing out of a great height. After the etiquette of golfing it is obligatory to repair pitch marks with a particular ballmark tool. Among golfers, a pitch mark is also called ball mark.

Pitch-and-run :  A shot from around the green, usually with a middle or short iron, where the ball carries in the air for a short distance before running towards the hole. (She played a beautiful pitch-and-run to within a foot of the hole).

Pitching niblick : A particular historical golf club is called pitching niblick. It was typically wooden-shafted, had a short shaft and was used in the beginning of the 20th Century. Because of those characteristics it was especially used for chipping and short approach shots. As it was used that way, it is the best comparable to modern wedges or a 4-iron. Furthermore the pitching niblick is also known as lofting iron or jigger.

Pitching wedge : The pitching wedge is the golf club, with which – as the name says – pitches are usually performed. It is basically an iron providing a club face angle of 48-50 degrees. With using the pitching wedge, a golfer is capable of performing high shots with distances up to 100 meters, after which the golf ball falls down steeply and doesn't roll far on the turf.

Pivot :  The rotation of the body around a relatively fixed point, usually the spine. (Throughout his career, people have marveled at Fred Couples' full pivot).

Play club : The play club or playclub was a former golf club. It was made out of wood and used for driving. Therefore and because of its specific characteristics it is the best comparable to modern drivers and woods. The play club is sometimes written as playclub and also known as grass club.

Play it again, sam : Play It Again, Sam is the name for two different competition formats in golf. On the one hand side it can refer to a competition format including mulligans, thus do-overs. In there, the handicaps of the golfers are converted into free shots and the particular regulation is, that the golf players can use those free shots whenever they desire. It can be regulated individually, whether the full or partly handicap strokes are additionally used. Besides, for this variation of Play It Again, Sam names like Mulligans, No Alibis , Criers and Whiners, Replay or Wipe Out are used as well. Within second golf game known as Play It Again, Sam the opponent can make a golfer repeat strokes. But it is important to limit the number of strokes for time reasons. Additionally it is recommended to play the game among good buddies with similar skills, because otherwise the game can obviously lose the pleasure of golfing. With regard to other golfers or groups it is furthermore significant not to play the game on a golf course which is highly frequented this day.

Play through : Play through or playing through is a golf term which refers to the procedure of a faster golf group which is allowed to overtake a slower group. According to the etiquette of golfing, the slower golf group should offer the faster group to play through.

Playing handicap : The handicap a golfer uses during a competition is called playing handicap.

Playing the ball down : The procedure of playing the ball down is the exact opposite to improving the lie of the golf ball. This means consequently, that the golfer plays the golf ball exactly out of the position where it lies.

Playing through : The process of slower players in front of faster players allowing the faster players to move ahead of the slower group.

Plugged ball : In case a golf ball lands and immediately rests in its own ball mark, this is designated as plugged ball. It is synonymously known as plugged lie, fried egg or buried lie.

Plugged lie :  The condition when the ball comes to rest in its own pitch mark, usually in a bunker or soft turf. (The ball plugged in the bunker, resulting in a difficult shot).

Plumb bob : Plumb Bob is a designation for a particular putter grip. In there, the golfer holds the putter vertically and uses it in order to determine the perfect putting line.

Plumb-bob :  A method many players use to help them determine the amount a putt will break. It involves positioning yourself behind the ball and holding the putter vertically so it covers the ball. In theory, the shaft of the putter will indicate the amount the ball will break. It does not, however, measure the speed of the green, which is an important element is reading a putt. (Ryder Cup Captain Curtis Strange often plumb-bobs his putts.)

Plunk : Plunk is the term for a special ball lie. In there, the ball rests on the lip of a water hazard, for example a lake.

Plus fours : Plus fours or rather plus twos are particular trousers for golf. Characteristically is, that they end below the knee and they are combined with knee socks. It is a traditional outfit for golf players. There is a difference between plus fours and plus twos. It is, that plus fours are produced in a fuller cut and fold four inches below the knee, whereas plus twos are slimmer and only fold two inches below the knee. The American English term for those trousers is knickers.

Plus golfer : The designation plus golfer refers to a golf player, whose handicap is extremely good. His handicap is better than 0, meaning instead of subtracting strokes, he has to add strokes to his gross score. Another term for plus golfer is plus handicap.

Plus handicap : In case a golf player has a handicap below zero, he has to add handicap strokes to his gross score and not as usually subtracting them. Plus golfer is a synonym for plus handicap.

Poa : Poa is a type of grass, which is occasionally used as the grass on a putting green. A famous example for a golf course using poa annua is the Pebble Beach Golf Links. There are different types of poa, which are for example either suitable to putting greens or roughs. The type poa annua which is used for putting greens has the characteristic to change and grow very fast, meaning that it can for example be less smooth in the afternoon than it was before.

Polee : The term polee designates various side bets in golf. On the one hand side, it is a bet, where the bet amount has to be set before the start of the round. Afterwards, the winner of this variation of the bet is the one who gets an approach shot which reaches the green within the length of the pin stick. This bet version of the polee is a one-time-only bet, meaning in case a golfer won it, the bet is finished for this round. Within the second variation, a polee also means, that it is a continuing bet through the round. This means that every golfer who stroke an approach shot during the round and reaches the green in the length of the flagstick, wins the polee. The third version of the polee is, that every golfer who holes out a putt from a longer distance then the flagstick, wins. For each win the golfer receives a point. Whoever earned the most points at the end of the round wins the bet.

Pop : The expression pop is the golf slang term for a handicap stroke.

Pop stroke : A pop stroke is a put or stroke, which is defined by a little and abrupt hit or jiggle at the golf ball.

Pop-up : Pop-up is the designation for a high shot with a short distance. It occurs, if the clubhead hits under the ball. As it is a tee shot, which should travel for a long distance in ideal case, the pop-up is a mis-hit. Furthermore those shots often cause white scuff marks or dents in the clubheads. Those shots are synonymously called sky shots.

Postage stamp : If a putting green has a small surface area it is designated as postage stamp. Those putting greens define a demanding game and make it more complicated to reach the hole.

Pot bunker : Characteristically for a pot bunker is, that it is round, small and at the same time very deep with extraordinary steep faces. The bunkers often occur at links courses, a famous example for pot bunkers are the British Open courses. As they are the most punishing bunkers in golf, it is extremely hard to play a golf ball out of it once it fell into the bunker. Golfers – even pro golfers – most commonly have to play the ball side- or backwards, thus away from the cup, in order to get the golf ball out of the hazard. The most dangerous pot bunkers are those, which are situated in a sloping fairway or which are not noticable from the teeing ground.

Powerball : Powerball is the expression for a particular golf tournament for groups of four golf players. In there, usually four or five holes (sometimes more) are designated as powerball holes. At each of those holes, one designated member of the group has to tee off from the forward tees. The drive of this golfer counts, no matter how good or bad it has been. In case there are four powerball holes, prior to the beginning of the round, each member is designated by the group to tee off at one of them. In case there are five holes, usually three of the four group members hit the powerball drives. The actual powerball holes are selected by the tournament organizers before the round and all golfers are informed about them before the round.

Practice green : The practice green is a separated putting green. It is designed in order to provide golfers the opportunity of practicing their putting and short game skills.

Practice range : A practice range is a particular area, in which the golf players can train their golf abilities by being separated from the golf course or the round. During this practice time the golfer has the possibility of correcting mistakes in swing, stance or at the impact. Most commonly, the practice range provides an open field with a teeing ground, occasionally there are also bunkers, pitching, chipping areas or even putting greens. The practice range is more commonly known as driving range or range.

Practice round : A practice round is a golf round, with the intention, that a golfer becomes acquainted with a new golf course he never played before. Thus, as the name says it is for practicing purpose and no round in a competition.

Practice swing : When used in golf, the designation practice swing refers to a rehearsal one. A golf player makes this swing through the air but doesn't hit the golf ball. This is either done in order to loosen up, or to get a feeling for the subsequent movements and obviously in order to make the golf swing as proper as possible.

Preferred lie : A lie that may be improved by a player.

Preferred lies : The preferred lies are a specification in golf, in which golfers are certainly allowed to improve the location of their golf ball without any penalty. Usually the procedure signifies, that a golf player is allowed to move the golf ball for six inches in every direction they want. But preferred lies are not obligatory, thus they are a local rule mostly proceeded in winter and a golfer is only allowed to use it, in order to find a better location within a with for example patches damaged ground. The preferred lies are also known as winter rules.

Pre-shot routine :  The actions a player takes from the time he selects a club until he begins the swing. (Her pre-shot routine never varied when she was playing her best golf).

Press :  To try and hit the ball harder than usual. (He thought he could carry the trees and so he pressed with his driver). This also describes an extra effort to play well. (When he bogeyed the first two holes, he began to press). In betting terms, it's an additional bet made after a playe r falls behind in a match. (When he fell two-down in his match, he pressed).

Primary cut : Primary rough or primary cut are designations for the rough with the highest and thickest and most punishing turf. Within the general structure of cuts there is the first cut of rough, this is the border to the fairway. This is occasionally followed by a second cut, which consists of turf of intermediate height lying between the first and the primary rough. The subsequent and last rough is the primary rough. Those differences between the cuts of a rough are only common at some golf courses, on the other hand side there are also courses which only have one cut of rough or no rough at all. Additionally, the primary cut can either be maintained and mowed, or can contain natural grass.

Private course : The term private course refers to golf courses which are accessible to members only. Most commonly country clubs are private golf courses as well. Even if only members are allowed to play at private courses, it is usually nevertheless permitted to the guests of members to play there. The fee to join those golf courses is various, at some of them it involves money in an amount of hundreds of thousands dollars. At the probably most luxurious private golf course – the Augusta National Golf Club it is only possible to join if you are invited to. The money amount to join is guessed to have an enormous height because it is not even known in public and the rangefee is speculated to already cost 25.000 to 50.000 Dollar per year.

Private lesson :  Generally speaking, when a PGA Professional gives a lesson to a single pupil. (After losing in the club championship, she had a private lesson with her PGA Professional).

Pro : A professional, abbreviated as pro, is a golfer, who either plays or teaches golf for a monetary wage. This difference is also designated differently, this a playing pro is called touring pro, whereas a golf teacher is designated as teaching pro or club pro.

Pro shop : The golf course shop operated by the golf pro.

Pro-am : A Pro-Am is a particular golf tournament. The speciality is, that in there a professional golfer and an amateur golfer build a team and play against another pairing of this structure.

Progressive offset : The term progressive offset usually refers to sets of iron golf clubs. It basically means, that the amount of offset is different at every club. Meaning the iron-4 has less offset than the iron-5, even if they are part of the same set and so on.

Pronation :  An inward rotation of the hands towards the body?s centerline when standing in a palms-facing-forward position. (The term was inaccurately used for many years to describe the rotation of both hands through the impact area. In fact, one hand, the right, was pronating while the left was supinating. Obviously, it is impossible to pronate both hands through the shot.)

Provisional ball : An additional ball which is hit in case the first ball can not be found. If the first ball is found, it is played. If the first ball is not found, the provisional must be played and the player is assessed a penalty stroke.

Proxy : A term for several contests is proxy. It can be in effect during tournaments and it generally includes a distance measurement. Closest to the pin, longest drive, straightest drive or longest putt made are the common proxy contests. In case one or more proxy contests are performed at one or more holes, a clipboard or notepad, called “proxy marker”, can be fixed in the ground at those holes.

Proxy marker : A proxy marker is a small clipboard or notepad which is located at the holes which are designated as proxy holes. In case a it is the closest to the pin contest at a particular hole the winner of one group puts the proxy marker at his ball location, writes his name on it and can play forward. Subsequent groups then try to beat this position. In case a golfer managed to beat it, he can put the proxy marker at the new best position and writes his name on it and so forth. Through this procedure the overall winner can be designated.

Public course : In general, a golf course which is open to the common public, thus can be played by everyone, is called public course. In public courses it can be differenced between municipal courses and daily fee courses. The owners of municipal courses are any government, like for example a city. Characteristically for a daily free course is, that they are privately owned, but anyways open for all golfers. The daily free courses are most commonly slightly more luxurious and more expensive than municipal courses.

Pull : A ball that is pulled (or hit) to the left of the target (for right handers).

Pull cart : A cart, thus a device to carry the golf bag, with two wheels which is designed to be pulled is due to that named pull cart.

Pulled hook :  A shot that begins to the side of the target line and continues to curve even further away. (He hit a pull hook off the 18th tee in the final round, but luckily the ball stayed in bounds.)

Pulled shot :  A relatively straight shot that begins to the side of the target and doesn't curve back. (She pulled her shot and ended up in the left-hand bunker.)

Pulled slice :  A shot that starts well to the side of the target but curves back to the target. (He hit a pulled slice that landed safely on the green.)

Punch : A punch shot is a special golf shot. It's characterized by a lower trajectory in contrast to a traditional shot. A punch shot is performed by setting the golf ball up farther back in stance, taking an abbreviated backswing and a shorter follow through. Furthermore, the punch shot is played with a longer golf club. This shot is used in order to maintain the control over the golf ball in windy situations or playing the golf ball under tree branches. Highly skilled golfers differentiate between the punch and the knockdown shot, but for free time golfers there is no difference and the designations can be used as interchangeable terms.

Punch out : Punch out is the designation for a rather small chip shot. Usually golfers perform when a longer shot would be necessary, but this short shot is the only possibility to release themselves out of a bad ball position, such as for example if the ball is caught in trees.

Punch shot :  A low-flying shot played with an abbreviated backswing and finish. The key to the shot is having the hands slightly ahead of the clubhead at impact, which reduces the effective loft of the club. (With the winds howling off the ocean, she played a beautiful punch shot into the green.)

Punch the greens : No we’re not mad and hitting the greens… this is another way to say the greens are being aerified.

Punchbowl green : The expression punchbowl green refers to a putting green that is located in a depression. The name results because the green seems to be a bowl with a flat bottom as putting surface. The bowl is surrounded by mounds on three sides and the fourth side is open to the fairway. Those putting greens were commonly designed in the 19th Century in order to save moisture which helps creating a healthy putting surface.

Punched greens : An aerated green is designated as punched green. As the aeration process as maintenance process is performed with a machine and leaves little holes on the ground, it is highly recognizable. The little holes are produced in order to circulate air into the grass roots and the soil and counteracts that soil compacts. And obviously all this is done in order to keep the turf grass healthy.

Pure : Pure is the designation used if a golfer flawlessly hit the center of gravity.

Push : A ball that is pushed (or hit) to the right of the target (for right handers).

Push fade : Push Fade is the designation for a shot which combines a push and a fade. For right-handed golfers this means, that it starts to curve to the right side of the target line and continues going there.

Pushed hook :  A shot that begins to the side of the target but curves back to the target. (Under the pressure of the final round, he hit a pushed hook from the tee of the 17th hole.)

Pushed shot :  A shot that starts to the side of the target and never curves back. (He pushed his tee shot into the right rough.)

Pushed slice :  A shot that starts to the side of the target and curves further away. (His pushed slice on the first hole flew out of bounds, setting the tone for the match.)

Push-slice : Within a pushed slice, is a bad shot. In there, a golf ball begins to fly on the right side of the target, thus away from the target and curves even further away.

Putt : A shot that rolls on the green hit with the putter.

Putt for dough : Putt for Dough is the name for a points golf game, which can be either performed as a side bet or just for fun. Prior to the start of the round it has to be clarified what value it has to win the bet. The target is to 1-putt, thus hole out with only 1-putt. Usually, if a group of four golfers plays the bet, the points are determined in the following way

Putt out : Putt out is a synonym for holing out. This means that putt out is the completion of a hole if the golf ball fell in the cup.

Putter : The club with a flat face used to putt. Often called the “flat stick”

Putting cleek : The putting cleek is a variation and adaption of the historical golf club called cleek. Therefore the “putting cleek” is obviously also a historical golf club. It was wooden-shafted and produced as well as used in the pre-20th Century. As the name suggests and as it was used for putting, it is the best comparable to the modern putter.

Putting green : The surface area around the hole that is specially prepared for putting.

Putting-green : The putting green is the area of the hole, where the cup with the flagstick are situated. The putting green or rather the hole which is on the putting green is the target of the golf game. There are no specifications of the design of a putting green, thus the green can vary in shape, size or other design elements. Only the turfgrass of a putting green has to be the most closely mown turf of all turfs on the golf course, so that it especially suits for putting. The Rule 16 of the Rules of Golf is specialized in the putting green. Further designations for the putting green are green or dance floor.

Quadruple bogey : A score of four over par, either on a single hole or on the golf course, is designated as quadruple bogey. In case a golfer scored for example nine strokes on a par-5 hole, he made a quadruple bogey.

Quail high : Quail high is the designation for a shot with a particularly low trajectory.

Qualifying school : The term Qualifying School, abbreviated with Q-School, refers to a particular qualifying tournament. Winning there enables golfers to compete in professional golf tours. The most famous Q-School event is organized by the PGA Tour. The qualifying process – especially the one of the PGA Tour consists of more than one events. There is always one event which defines the best players who move forward to the next event and again get classified there. The last or rather final round of the classification process is designated as Qualifying School, thus the lowest finishers plus ties of the Q-School are really those golfers who are afterwards allowed to take part in the professional golf tour.

Quarter shot : A quarter shot is a particular golf shot which is characterized by an enormously shortened swing, so that it only the quarter of the original shot results, hence the name. It is performed for making very short shots which need to be extremely under control.

Quit : The expressions quit or quitting on the ball refer to the procedure of slowing down the swing before hitting the golf ball. This results in a decelerated club at the impact.

Quota tournament : The quota tournament is a special variation of the golf game. The basic target is to reach 36 points in total. Each player begins the game with an amount of points which fit with his handicap, thus the number of points is the handicap. In case a golfer has a handicap of 15 he starts with 15 points. The starting point is called quota. The goal is to get 36 points by adding points. Generally it is added after this specification

R&a : R&A is the abbreviation for Royal and Ancient. In golf, this term has two different meanings. On the one hand side it refers to one of the oldest, most popular and luxurious golf clubs worldwide. It is situated in St. Andrews, Fife, Scotland and founded in 1754. The R&A is globally classified as Home of Golf. Until 2004 this golf club was also a governing authority in golf, but meanwhile this authority consists of a new group of companies called The R&A. As it is also often only called R&A, the term simply received its second meaning as the governmental company in golf. This authority covers every country instead of the United States and Mexico. The R&A works with golf organizations in more than 110 countries.

Rabbit : When used in golf, the term rabbit refers to a golf side bet with the object of achieving a low score on a hole and receiving the honor after the 9th and 18th hole. The basic structure is, that when the round begins, the golfer with the lowest score occupies the Rabbit. Ties don't count for the lowest score. In case another golfer scores lower than the Rabbit holder at the subsequent hole, the Rabbit is set free. Afterwards, at the next hole the lowest scorer captures the Rabbit and tries to defend this position, but in case he can't and isn't the lowest scorer at the next hole, the procedure repeats itself. The winner(s) of the bet are the golfers who capture the Rabbit at the 9th and 18th hole. If the Rabbit is set free at this time, no one wins the bet.

Radius :  The distance between the center of the swing arc (the target or forward shoulder) and the hands on the grip. (Because of his unusually long arms, his swing had a large radius.)

Rainmaker : Rainmaker is a term describing a stroke with an extremely high ball flight. The rainmaker can either be produced intentionally or accidentally. The name results therein, that this high trajectory seems to be even able to hit the clouds and cause a rainfall.

Raised swing center :  Elevating the central area in the body (somewhere between the top of the spine and the center of the neck) around which rotation takes place. What the novice frequently refers to as "looking up" and results in a swing that is too high.

Range : This is the area where you go to practice. It usually has many stations to hit practice shots.

Range ball : A range ball is a particular golf ball which is designed for playing on the range. Therefore it is characteristically manufactured with a harder cover, so that it won't be easily damaged. The range balls are commonly identifiable because of an red or black stripe going around them. Sometimes used balls are degraded as range balls and therefore only used at the driving range. The term range ball is furthermore sometimes used as slang term for a shot that went bad. The golf ball which was used for this shot is then designated as range ball.

Rangefinder : The rangefinder, sometimes spelled in two words range finder, is a particular measure device in golf. It is used in order to find out a golfers distance to an object. Thus it is used to determine the distance from the golfers position to the hole.

Ranger : The ranger is a person at the golf course. It is the responsible person for questions or concerns of golfers and they have kind of a golf police character, so only their presence makes golfers playing more carefully. It is for example the task of a ranger to supervise the speed of the game. Therefore the usually volunteering rangers are visible to all golfers and drive with marked golf carts. Further more commonly used designations for a ranger are course ranger or marshall.

Rap :  To hit a putt with a short, firm stroke. (Former PGA Champion Gene Sarazen liked to rap his putts).

Rating : Rating is the short form of course rating and refers to the measurement of the complexity of an golf course. This is measured in strokes and there is a clear specification of the statements. If a common par 72 golf course is easy to play, the rating is for example 68.9, in case it is hard to play, the rating could be 74.5. This rating is executed by the USGA and usually the course rating is also noted in the scorecard. Furthermore, as it is even relevant for the calculation of the USGA Handicap Index, the rating is a particular part of the USGA Handicapping System.

Rating marker : There is a particular sign next to the tee, which is called rating marker. It displays a point, from which the exact distance of the hole is measured.

Reading the green : Determining which way the putt will curve based upon the slope of the green.

Reading the green (or putt) :  The entire process involved in judging the break and path of a putt. (Her caddie, Tom, was a genius at reading a green).

Ready golf : Ready Golf is a procedure of speeding up the golf game. In there, the first golfer of a group who is ready is allowed to play first, regardless if he was away, so would be allowed to play first, or not. After the etiquette of golfing, this is not allowed and is classified as poor etiquette. But in fact, this process can speed up the game enormously and is no violation after the Rules of Golf. Ready Golf should only be played, if it is required by the tournament organizer or in a friendly match, if all members agree on playing it.

Reciprocals : A reciprocal is a mutual arrangement between two private golf clubs. The general focus is to provide members of both clubs the opportunity of playing at the other golf course without being member there. This is often published as advertisement in order to acquire new members because of the advantage of playing on two golf courses but only being member in one.

Recover :  To successfully hit a shot from a poor location. (Throughout his career, Arnold Palmer was known for his ability to boldly recover from trouble).

Recovery shot : A Recovery Shot, abbreviated with Recover, is the designation for a specific shot in golf. In fact, it is a shot out of a poor position, like a hazard into a favorable playing location.

Red tees : There is a multiple set of tee boxes on each hole. The red tees are the forward tees of a golf course. In the past there have been three tee boxes which were colored differently. The rearmost ones were blue, the middle tees were white and the forward tee boxes red colored. As there are meanwhile more tees at the each hole, this differentiation doesn't fit any more, but the names remained. In case a golfer plays the whole round from the forward tees, this is automatically the shortest playable length of the golf course. The red tees are often called ladies tees.

Red, white and blue tournament : Red, White and Blue Tournament is the designation for a particular tournament format. In there, Red, White and Blue refers to the Front, Middle and Back tees. At the first hole, all golf players tee off from the white, thus the middle tees. Afterwards, the tee box depends on the score. In case a golfer scored a birdie at the first hole, he has to tee off from the blue tees, meaning the rearmost tees on the second hole. Golfers who scored par tee again off from the middle tees and the ones who scored a bogey or even worse tee off from the red, thus the front tees. This procedure is repeated at each hole. This tournament format can be either played with or without using the handicap strokes.

Redan : Redan, or rather redan hole refers to a particular golf hole. A redan hole is most commonly a par-3 hole including a complex, wide putting green. This green slopes diagonally away from the tee box usually from the right to the left side. It angles from the front to the back corner and provides large bunkers which are most commonly situated at the left side. The original redan hole is located at the West Links at North Berwick Golf Links in Scotland and called redan. Therefore all holes which are designed after this model are called redan hole.

Referee : A referee is an official person who pays attention on the Rules of Golf within a match or competition.

Regular shaft : Regular shaft is a term for the shaft of a golf club with a medium amount of torque.

Regulation : The Regulation designates every official specification concerning golf and concerning the Rules of Golf.

Release :  The act of freely returning the clubhead squarely to the ball at impact, producing a powerful shot. (Tiger Woods has a textbook release of the club at impact).

Relief : The relief is a procedure in conformity with the Rules of Golf and it means, that the golfer is allowed to pick up the golf ball and move it away from a bad condition but without any penalty.

Reload : In case a shot is assuredly out of play, it is called reload.

Resort course : A particular golf course, which is part of a larger resort complex is called resort course. Usually the resort contains a hotel or lodging and a spa. Those golf courses are nevertheless often also open for the public, but resort guests are usually preferentially treated for the tee-time reservation.

Reverse :  Weight Shift

Reverse bounce back : In case a golfer scored a bogey or even worse at one hole and a birdie or something better at the subsequent hole, this is called reverse bounce back. The opposite sequence is called bounce back.

Reverse overlap : The reverse overlap is a particular golf grip. The golfer positions the little finger of one hand over the index finger of the other hand. As it is the direct opposite of the reverse overlap, it received its name reverse overlap.

Reverse scramble : The term reverse scramble describes a specific variation of the scramble in golf. At first, all members tee off. Afterwards the worst of those drives is selected and every player has to hit his second shot out of this location. And again, the worst of those shots is chosen in order to play all third strokes from that position. This procedure is repeated until the golf ball is holed out. As this format requires a lot of time, it is not recommended to play it as a tournament or to play it if the golf course is crowded. But in fact it is a good practice game if no golfer behind a golfer or a group has to wait on them.

Rhythm :  The coordination of movement during the golf swing or putting stroke. (For generations, Sam Snead's golf swing has been the model of perfect rhythm).

Rimmed : The term rimmed describes a particular shot. In there, the golf ball circles around the lip of the hole but doesn't drop in, meaning it is very close to holing out, but in the end it doesn't do so.

Road hole :  The par-4 17th hole at the Old Course at St. Andrews, one of the most famous and difficult holes in the world. (His approach on the Road Hole missed the green and cost him the British Open).

Rolex rankings : The official world rankings of women's professional golf are called Rolex Rankings. As the watch manufacturer Rolex is the title sponsor, it is named this way. The rankings are calculated weekly and can be seen at their official website.

Rotation : As professional tournaments sometimes rotate the golf courses where they take place, this procedure is called rotation, shortened with rota. The particular designation “Open rota” refers to the rotation of golf courses at the British Open.

Rough : Long grass area adjacent to the fairway. Normally you try to avoid the rough.

Round : Complete 18 holes of golf. (i.e. a round of golf is the playing of 18 holes)

Round robin :  A tournament format in which players or team play a variety of other teams, the winner being the player or team that accumulates the highest number of points. (The two brothers always teamed in the club's Fall Round Robin).

Routing : Routing is an expression referring to the line a golf course follows from the first teeing ground to the finalization of the 18th hole. In contrast to the layout, the routing doesn't include design elements of the individual holes.

Rowan match play : A Rowan Match play is a variation of the match play. It can be performed with three or more golfers. At first, all golfers play against each other. The player who had the best score on the first hole wins the hole with a score of 1 up towards all the others. As a result, the others build a team against this leading golfer with the intention to play all-square. This procedure repeats the whole round.

Royal and ancient : Royal and Ancient is known as the Home of Golf. It is one of the oldest, most famous and luxurious golf clubs in the world, located in St.Andrews, Scotland. The golf club was established 1754 and it was furthermore also the primary governing body of golf until 2004.

Rub of the green : The term rub of the green refers to a rule within the Rules of Golf. It's basically a rule concerning the golf ball. In case the ball is unintentionally deflected or stopped by a caddie, forecaddie or any other outside agency, the procedure is designated as “rub of the green” and can be played where it comes to rest and the golfer doesn't receive any penalty.

Rule : When used in golf, the term Rule can either refer to the official R&A Rules of Golf or the local rule.

Rule 23 : The Rule 23 is a very important rule within the Rules of Golf, which refers to loose impediments. Those are loose, natural elements on a golf course which could influence the golf game or rather the target line of a golf ball. For that reason the objects can usually be moved without penalty as long as the golf ball and the impediment are not both in a hazard.

Rule 26 : Rule 26 of the Rules of Golf refers to water hazards, lateral water hazards and the general treatment of them at a golf course. There are for example explanations about the address of a golf ball in a water hazard, where a golfer is not allowed to ground his golf ball or that lateral water hazards need to be labelled noticeable by red stakes or lines.

Rules of golf : Within the Rules of Golf all regulations, specifications and procedures of the golf game are covered. The rules are defined by the R & A and the USGA. Specific rules involve for example water hazards, unplayable balls or the behavior on the putting green.

Run : The distance the ball will travel along the ground after it lands.

Running iron : A particular golf club is called running iron. With its help, the golfer is able to create short shots which mainly roll.

Run-up : The term run-up describes a particular hitting of the golf ball. In there, the golf ball is hit close to the ground approaching and onto the putting green.

Rutter : Rutter is the designation for a niblick. This particular niblick is small headed and designed in order to be able to hit the golf ball from a cart track.

Sand save : term describing that a golfer scored par by performing an up and down from a green-side bunker.

Sand trap : The common name for a sand hazard. These are areas that are filled with sand and should be avoided.

Sand wedge : An iron normally used to hit the ball out of the sand. It can also be used on short pitch shots.

Sandbagger : This is a golfer who purposely tells others that he is a worse golfer than he really is in order to gain an edge in competition.

Sandie : The expression sandie, sometimes written sandy, has two slightly different meanings. On the one hand side, the term can refer to a golfer making par on a hole at which he were in a bunker before. In this meaning a sandie is often played as a betting game in which any golfer who makes par after his golf ball was situated in a bunker wins a point or alternatively an agreed-upon set of money. Whereas on the other hand side the sandie can also designate the procedure of stroking out of a bunker and hole out in two shots. If a golfer achieved par or an even better score after hitting two or three bunker shots at the same hole, this is either called Double Sandy or Triple Sandy.

Sandy : A player makes a sandy when he hits a shot out of the sand and sinks the following putt.

Sclaff : The term sclaff describes a procedure in golf, in which a golf club strikes the ground completely behind the golf ball.

Scoop : Scoop refers to a golf swing in which the golf club flies in a scooping manner. The result of this procedure is a poor shot.

Score : The Score designates the number of strokes which a golfer needs in order to hole out or the total number of strokes on a round. After each hole, the score is noted in the scorecard. To score can furthermore also have the meaning of keeping the number of used strokes on a minimum.

Scorecard : The scorecard is a particular card in golf, on which a golf player notes down his personal score of each hole during the play as well as the total score of the round. The speciality is, that in some matches golfers have to record the score of opponent golfers.

Scoring : The expression scoring has different meanings in golf. At first it refers to the grooves, dimples or scratches, thus all markings on the clubface. Furthermore it can designate a procedure of keeping the performed scores on a minimum. And finally the term “scoring” also refers to the process of registering scores or leading the scoreboard.

Scoring clubs :  The driver, putter and sand wedge. (He devoted much of his practice to the scoring clubs.)

Scotch foursomes : Scotch Foursomes is a golf format, in which teams of two golfers per team play against each other. The general concept is, that every golf player tees off and the best ball per team is chosen and afterwards this ball is holed out in alternate shot fashion. It is characteristic, that this golf format can be played as match play as well as in a stroke play fashion. Furthermore the format is also known as Canadian Foursomes, Modified Pinehurst or greensomes.

Scramble :  To recover from trouble (Seve Ballesteros could scramble with the best of them) or a popular form of team play in which the team members pick the ball in the best position and everyone plays from that spot. (The member-guest was played in a scramble format).

Scratch : In case a golfer is designated as Scratch or Scratch Golfer, this means he has a handicap of 0 or even a lower one. As a result, this kind of golfer is able to finish a round with a score of par or under par. Scratch golfers also play an important role in the course and slope rating systems of the USGA.

Scratch golfer : A player who has a handicap of 0. This player will theoretically shoot even par or better every time out.

Semiprivate lesson :  An instruction format where a limited number of pupils work with a Professional. (When the triplets wanted to take up golf, their parents arranged for them to take semi-private lessons with their PGA Professional).

Senior : A Senior“- competition is a competition for older golfers ore individuals. The standard lower age in men´s professional golf is 50, while other competitions like the U.S. Senior Amateur with the lower age limit 55 and the „Legends Tour“ in women´s golf with the lower age limit 45.

Separation :  When any of the various body parts and/or the club move either faster or slower that the other elements of the swing. (He worked very hard to prevent his arms from separating on the downswing).

Setup :  The process of addressing the ball, so that the club and body are properly aimed and aligned. (Since his setup was so good, he could occasionally recover from the slight errors in his swing.)

Shamble : Shamble is a golf format that is related to Scramble. After every golfer had hit the ball from the tee, the best tee-shot is going to be selected and from this position all golfers have to hole in.

Shank :  When the ball is struck on the hosel of the club, usually sending it shooting off to the right. (He hit a shank on his approach to the 9th hole, and the ball almost struck his caddie).

Shanks : Shanks is a Situation in which the golfer cannot stop shanking the golf ball.

Shape :  To curve a shot to fit the situation. (His ability to shape a shot really impressed the older players). The word is also used to describe the flight of the ball. (The usual shape of his shots was a fade).

Shoot your age : Shoot your age is a golf format, in which the golfers have to play exactly the same score or less, like his age, in a round of 18 holes.

Short game :  Those shots played on and around the green, including putting, chipping and pitching, and bunker shots. (To go along with his power, Tiger Woods has a phenomenal short game).

Short irons :  The 8 and 9 irons and the pitching wedge. The sand wedge is considered a scoring or specialty club. (He wanted flatter-than-standard lies on his short irons).

Short side : If a golfer hits a shot that misses the green to the same side as the side where the hole is located, it is named Short Side.

Shotgun start : A method of starting play where players go to every tee box on the golf course and hit their tee shots at the same time. Sometimes a horn is sounded to start play.

Shut :  A position in the swing when the clubface is closed relative to the target line. (The cause of his poor driving was a shut clubface at the top of the backswing).

Side : This is a term, which is interchangeable with the word “nine” as in front side which means the front nine or front nine holes. Now if you are really smart, you can also figure out that the back side is the back nine or last nine holes!

Sidehill lie : This refers to a lie when the ball is resting on a slope and the golfer’s feet are either above or below the ball.

Sit : If a golfer says Sit, he wants the ball to drop softly and not to roll.

Skull : If the ball got hit by the leading edge of the iron it is called Skull. A Skulled Shot mostly results in a flat shot, that goes further than expected with no or just little spin. A Skull is equal to a Blade or a Thin.

Sky :  A high, short shot caused by the clubhead striking the underside of the ball. Also known as a "pop-up." (He skied his tee shot and the ball barely reached the fairway).

Slice :  A ball that curves from left to right to a greater degree than a fade. (His game was plagued by a terrible slice that he developed as a youngster).

Slope rating : USGA term that represents the difficulty of a course for bogey golfers relative to the USGA Course Rating (which represents the difficulty for scratch golfers). The higher the slope, the more difficult the course plays for bogey golfers. Slope ratings range from 55 to 155 and 113 is considered average.

Smothered :  Hook

Snake : An award given to a player in a friendly game when the player three putts. Whoever has the snake at the end of the round usually ‘gets’ to treat the other players to a beverage.

Snowman : If a golfer scores an eight on a hole its a Snowman, because the eight (8) looks like the body of a snowman.

Society : A Society is a group of golfers, who usually play together without being affiliated to a special golf course.

Sole :  When referring to equipment, it is the bottom of a club. (The sole of his wedge had become rusty over the winter). When referring to the swing, it is the point when the sole of the club touches the ground at address. (When he soled his club, the ball moved and he called a penalty on himself).

Sole-weighted :  A design, usually for fairway woods, that incorporates additional weight along the sole of the club. This makes it easier to get the ball into the air and is also effective from the rough. (Many players in the PGA Championship had sole-weighted clubs in their bags because of the deep rough.)

Speed : The pace of a putt is called Speed. The Speed of a putt will either leave the putt about 18 inches beyond the cup or hole it. The break or amount of curve is often determined by the Speed.

Splash shot :  A shot played from a good lie in the bunker. The club "splashes" through the sand, throwing the ball into the air. (He splashed the ball out of the bunker, landing the ball within a foot of the hole).

Spoon :  A term for a 3-wood that is seldom used today. (He reached the par 5 with a driver and a spoon).

Spot :  Another term for marking the ball on the green so it might be lifted. (He put a spot on his ball so he could clean it before putting).

Spot putting :  Using an intermediate target such as a discolored blade of grass or an old ball mark as a means of aiming a putt. (Once he began spot putting, his scores began to improve.)

Spray : When a ball is hit with a grossly inconsistent direction and it is compared to the intended target it is called a Spray.

Square :  A term frequently used in golf. It can be used to describe a stance (His feet, hips and shoulders were all square to the target line) or the clubface (His club was perfectly square to the target line) or to describe contact with the ball (The key to greater driving distance is making square contact). It can also refer to the status of a match (The were all-square (tied) at the turn).

Stance :  The position of the feet at address. (He played most shots from an open stance).

Starter : The person who is responsible for sending the groups of players off the first tee. Usually the starter is located somewhere close to the first hole.

Steer :  An attempt to guide the flight of the ball that usually results in a loss of distance. (He tried to steer the ball off the 1st tee, but wound up hitting a weak push into the rough).

Stimpmeter : This is a device which is used to calibrate the speed of the greens. Often referred to as ‘stimp’. A reading of 5 to 11 is the normal range with 5 being slow and 11 being extremely (PGA) fast!

Stony : You just stuck it next to the pin… congratulations on the stony. This is the shot you wiggle and grunt to try and make it go in because you hit it so close to the hole.

Straight-faced :  The description of a club with very little loft, such as a driving iron, or a driver that lacks the standard bulge and roll. (Because of the strong winds, he often drove with a straight-faced iron).

Stroke : This is often used in the following context, “how many STROKES are you giving me” which means how many shots or additional swings are you giving me to even out the match. It can also be the term used for the actual process of swinging the club through the ball.

Stroke play :  Also known as medal play, it is a form of competition based on the cumulative number of strokes taken, either over one round or several. (Most professional tournaments are stroke play events).

Strong grip :  A terms used to describe a grip in which the hands are turned counter-clockwise on the grip. It does not connote a stronger-than-normal grip pressure. (Former PGA Champion Paul Azinger has a strong grip.)

Stymie : If a player wants to block another golfer´s putting path to the hole with his own golf ball it is named a Stymie.

Sudden death : This is a method of breaking a tied match by playing extra holes. The first player to win a hole is the winner.

Summer rules : Ordinary rules according to the rulebook.

Sunday bag/strong> : A small and lightweight golf bag is called Sunday Bag.

Sunday stick : A golf club, that is disguised as a walking stick for secret golf on a sunday is called a Sunday Stick in societies that strict compliance the sabbath.

Supination :  An outward rotation of the hands (thumbs turning out) away from the body's centerline when standing in a palms-facing-the-body position. In the golf swing it is the right-hand rotation motion on the backswing and the left's on the forward swing.

Swaying :  An exaggerated lateral movement of the body on either the backswing, forward swing, or both, which results in inconsistent shotmaking. (His PGA Professional suggested a drill to correct his swaying).

Sweet spot :  The point on the clubface where, if it is struck with an object, the clubface will not torque or twist to either side. (To find the sweet spot on his putter, he held the grip with his thumb and forefinger and let it hang vertically. Then he tapped the face of the putter with the eraser-end of a pencil until the putter head moved back without any torquing or twisting).

Swing arc :  The entire path the clubhead makes in the course of a swing. It is a combination of the swing's width and length. (His swing arc resulted in tremendous clubhead speed).

Swing center :  A point, usually near the base of the neck and the top of the spine, around which the arms and upper body rotate during the swing. (Since his swing center remained constant throughout the swing, he was a very consistent ballstriker).

Swing plane :  An imaginary surface that describes the path and angle of the club during the swing. (As a rule, tall players tend to have a more upright swing plane than shorter players).

Swinger :  A player whose swing is based on timing and rhythm, as opposed to a "hitter," whose swing is based on sheer power. (Gene Litter is a textbook example of a swinger).

Swingweight :  A measure of the effective weight of a club. (His driver had a D-8 swingweight, which is heavier-than-standard).

Swingweight scale :  A device for measuring swingweight. (Every PGA Professional knows how to use a swingweight machine).

T and f : In the golf format T and F tournament the holes on the golf course get a special meaning. The Name T and F refers to the first letters of those holes ( e.g., Three, Four,…).This tournament can be played with any scoring format, there are usually two possibilities how to play T and F. The first is with Teams with not less than theee players or another competition. Only the scores of holes beginning with T or F are counted. Another variant is about teams with 2 golfers, the first golfers scores are only counted from the holes beginning with T and F, the second golfers scores are only used on the remaining nine holes. To create the team score the scores of both players have to be added together. Who has to play the T and F is normally decided by the tournament organizers or the partners.

Takeaway :  The movement of the club at the start of the backswing. (Her slow takeaway set the pace for her entire swing).

Tap-in : If a ball has come to rest very close to the hole, that need only a short put to hole, it is called a Tap-In.

Target line :  An imaginary (often visualized) line drawn behind and through the ball to the point a player is aiming. If the player is planning to curve the ball, this point is the initial -- not the ultimate -- target. (Jack Nicklaus visualizes his target line before every shot).

Taylormade golf : TaylorMade Golf is just the same as TaylorMade-adidas Golf (TMAG). TMAG is a minor group of the adidas Group. The beginning of TMAG was in 1978, when Gary Adams began presenting his metal-headed drivers to PGA Tour pros.

Tee : This is the wooden (usually) peg which is used to hold the ball up for driving. It is also the term for the area where play begins on a particular hole (i.e. the third tee is where the third hole starts)

Tee ball : The ball that is played from the Teeing Ground is called Tee Ball.

Tee box :  The area where players tee to start a hole. (Robert Trent Jones designed long tee boxes).

Tee shot : The first stroke, which is played from the Teeing Ground of the hole is called Tee Shot.

Tee time : Tee Time is the time, when your reservation at a golf course begins. At your Tee Time the first Tee Shot should be hit. Not all golf courses have a determined Tee Time.

Teeing ground : The starting point on each hole of a golf course is called Teeing Ground. The Teeing Ground is two club-lengths deep rectangular area, the sides and the front are defined by outside limits of two Tee Markers.

Tempo :  The speed of the swing (not necessarily the clubhead speed). (Ernie Els has a beautiful tempo).

Texas scramble : Texas Scramble is a golf format like Scramble with minor Modification. With Scramble are 4-person teams and each member of the team is playing his own golf ball. After all four players hit their drives, they select the best of them. The other three team members move their golf balls to the position of the best drive and play their next shot from this spot. This movement continues until the golf ball is holed. In Texas Scramble every members´ ball have to be played at least four drives during the round. Texas Scramble allows even the weakest driver to get in action.

Texas wedge :  A term describing a shot played with a putter from well off the green. It is a good shot for players who lack confidence in their chipping and pitching, or in extremely windy conditions. (Under tournament pressure, he often played a Texas wedge, rather than risk chipping the ball).

The bear : The Bear is a special variation of playing golf. It is a golf game for a group, ideally there are three or four players, but two are also working. The aim is to have the lowest score on a hole and that is called catching the Bear. The flight agrees on an amount of points or money in advance. Whoever holds the bear also wins the points or money, but at each hole, the Bear doubles each time when another player captures the Bear. After the ninth hole, the bet pays off to the one who holds the Bear at this hole. Afterwards it starts over again for the back nine holes and the winner there is the one who captures the Bear after playing the 18th hole

The parkland course receives its name because of the design which is similar to a park. Therefore it is characteristically, that the golf course has deeply green fairways, fast putting greens and usually also a lot of trees. A lot of golf courses at the european tour are parkland courses.

The size of a golf course is most commonly measured in the number of holes. A 18-hole golf course is the standard version. Furthermore can the size also be measured by the type of holes. The executive-course for example a course which can be played faster, because there are more par-3-holes, than par-4 or par-5-holes. He is similar to the so-called par-3-course – in there are only par-3-holes in order to offer a fast play. The probably shortest course of all variations is the “approach course”, it is a golf course which is specialized for exercise purposes.

The third common meaning of the cut is the positioning of the cup on the green. Thus its meaning refers to the hole-cutting tool which was used to remove turf and sod where the cup is positioned.

The type or possibility of access is differentiated in public golf courses, resort courses, semi-private or private golf courses. Public golf courses are available for the entire public. They can either be property of the city or municipality, or the can also have a private owner. Resort courses are part of a hotel complex, but nevertheless they are often also open for public, the only exception to public courses is, that hotel guests are preferred for the tee-time reservation. At semi-private golf courses memberships are sold, but also non-members are allowed to play, it's similar to resort courses, that members are preferred in some cases. Completely private golf courses are only available for members. Non-members are only allowed to play on the golf course if they pay the green fee and are accompanied by a member of the private course.

The usga and the r&a measured the spring-like effect with help of the coefficient of restitution until 2004. As the r&a and the usga had a disagreement in the early 2000s about what the limit of the coefficient of restitution should be, they agreed on the measure method characteristic time.

Thin shot : A Thin Shot is a shot, in which the clubhead strikes the golf ball near or slightly lower its midpoint. This shot can sometimes travel a long distance. A Thin can also be called as Blade but sometimes they have a different meaning.

Thirty-two : A Thirty-Two is a challenge between two golfers, in which one player want to avoid a three-putt. If one player is facing a long difficult putt, the other one can appeal to the Thirty-Two side bet. If the enemy at least two putts, the other golfer have to give him three units of the bet. If he´s making three-putts or worse, he owes you two units.

Three ball : Three Ball is actually two matchplays for each player in just one round. The group of three players challenge against each other in matchplay by playing individual matches 1-vs-2.

Three blind mice : Another golf tournament format is Three Blind Mice, it hast two different meanings.

Three club monte : Three Club Monte is a golf format, in which a golfer can only use three golf clubs during the round. It is regulated, that the golfers can use their putters, without counting them. During the round the three golf clubs, which where chosen can not be changed.

Three little pigs : The competition format Three Little Pigs allows the golfer to remove their three worst scores. After finishing the round, the golfers can eliminate them and the scores from the other 15 holes are added together to create the Three Little Pigs-Score.

Three-putt : If a golfer needs three putts on the green to hole the golf ball it is named Three-Putt. All players hope to avoid a Three-Putt, because it shows that the golfer is not incapable to finish a hole with two putts on the green.

Three-putt poker : Three-Putt Poker combines golf sport with poker. At the beginning the members of a group make a bet and receive a poker card. Every golfer who needs at least three putts on a hole have to add the sum of the bet to the pot. Each player who make a 1-putt is receiving another playing card. After finishing the front nine, the golfer with the best card wins the pot and the game goes on.

Three-quarter shot :  A shot played with a shortened backswing and lessened arm speed. (With the winds blowing off the ocean, he played a three-quarter shot into the 15th green).

Threesome : Hmmm… now if you think about this you might just get it. Hint

Tier :  A rise or level in a green or tee. (It was important to land you approach shot on the proper tier).

Tiger tees : A slang term for the Tee Boxes used in professional Tournaments is Tiger Tees.

Tight fairway : A narrow fairway with not much area on either side to miss.

Tight lie : A Tight Lie is any position where the golf ball is sitting on bare dirt or any spot, where´s a very little grass beneath the ball. It is also known as Thin lie.

Timing :  The sequence of motions within the golf swing. (Her timing was so good that it made up for her minor swing faults).

Tips : The Tips are the championship tees on a golf course.

Toe : This is a term for what you have on your feet OR it refers to the part of the club farthest from where it joins the shaft.

Toed shot :  Any shot hit off the toe of the club (Facing a fast, downhill putt, he toed his approach putt and left it short of the hole).

Tombstone : The competition format Tombstone is better known as Flags or Flag Competition. In this golf format the players start with their assigned strokes until they run out. The winner is the golfer who makes it the furthest around the golf course. Each golfer takes a flag, a small clipboard or other items with him to stake them in the ground at the position of their final stroke.

Topdressing : A layer of material put down on a green following aeration or overseeding to care for the putting green is called Topdressing. The Topdressing can be a mixture of sand, soil and fertilizer or a mixture of sand, seed and fertilizer.

Topped shot :  A low, bouncing shot caused by the bottom of the club striking the top half of the ball. (He topped his drive on the 1st tee and never regained his composure).

Touch :  A player's sense of feel, generally around the greens. (Ben Crenshaw has always had great touch).

Trajectory :  The height and angle the ball travels when struck. (Great players are able to control the trajectory of their shots).

Transition :  The change of direction in the swing, from the backswing to the forward swing. (It's very important to make a smooth transition in your swing).

Triple bogey : if a golfer needs three strokes over par to hole the ball it is called Triple Bogey.

Trough line : The Trough Line is the imaginary line a ball would roll if it goes past the hole.

Turkey : Three ensuing Birdies in one round are called Turkey.

Turn : To start the back nine holes. To “make the turn” means you have finished the 1st nine holes and are “turning” to the 2nd nine.

Uncock :  The release of straightening of the wrists during the downswing. (She uncocked her wrists prematurely, causing her to lose power in her swing).

Underclubbing : Using a club that does not provide enough distance to hit the ball to the intended target.

Unplayable : A golfer can assert his ball during the play as unplayable and drop him either from the hole in line with the hole and its current position or within two club-length, or where the last shot was played. There´s a fine of one stroke. If a ball is declared unplayable in a Hazard, it has to be dropped within this hazard.

Unplayable lie : A lie from which the ball can not be hit. (i.e. it is up against a tree and the player can not hit it)

Up and down : The Up and Down is the situation, where a golfer makes it to hole the golf ball in two strokes from outside the green. Firstly a Pitch, a Bunker Shot or a Chip gets the ball Up onto the green and secondly a Putt gets the golf ball Down/In into the hole.

Upright :  A steeper-than-normal swing plane. (His upright swing helped him escape from the rough). Upright also refers to a club's lie in which the shaft is placed at a steeper-than-standard angle. (His PGA Professional suggested upright lies in his long irons).

Usga : The USGA is the governing body of golf for the U.S. and Mexico. The Rules of Golf are produced by them together with THE R&A.

Uspga : The USPGA is the principal organization for golf pro´s in the USA.

Vardon grip : The Vardon Grip is a grip style, in which the right pinkie finger (for right-handd players) lies on top of the left index finger. It is named for Harry Vardon, a pro golfer of the 20th century. This grip is also known as Overlapping Grip.

Vector :  A quantity or measure related to force that has both magnitude and direction. An important factor in determining the distance and direction a ball travels.

Visualization :  A mental image of a swing or shot or even an entire round. (Once she began visualizing her shots, her scoring improved dramatically.)

Waggle :  A motion or several motions designed to keep a player relaxed at address and help establish a smooth pace in the takeaway and swing. (His father told him to try and copy Sam Snead's waggle.)

We are golf : We are Golf is a coalition, which is formed by the Club Managers Association of Amerika, the National Golf Course Owner Association, the Golf Course Superintendents Association of Amerika and the PGA of America. The economic and social impacts of golf are paramount in this organization.

Weak grip :  A term describing a grip where the hands are turned to the left for a right-handed player. (When Ben Hogan weakened his grip he began fading the ball.)

Wedge : An iron with a high loft used for short shots requiring a high trajectory.

Whiff :  A complete miss. Also known as an "air ball." He was so nervous that he whiffed his drive.)

Winter green : The Winter Green is an area of fairway, that is used as putting green during hard winter weather.

Winter rules : Local golf rules that permit the player to improve the lie of the ball in the fairway. There may be additional winter rules allowed depending on the golf course condition.

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Wolf : Wolf can be played as a points or betting game for a group of four players. At every hole, the Wolf changes. The Wolf can decide if he wants to play himself against the other three golfers or if the hole is played by two teams, each with two members. The Wolf has to decide which player he wants to be in a team with, before the next player´s drive. The team with the lowest better ball score wins the hole. If the Golfers play 2-vs.-2 the winners have to bet, if they play 1-vs.-3, the Wolf wins or loses double. If the Wolf decides, that he wants to play alone, before anyone has teed of, he wins or loses triple.

Wolfman : A golf betting game, which has resemblance with Wolf, Hog and Defender is Wolfman. It´s a game format especially for groups of three golfers. The it Player is chosen based on his tee shots. On each hole, one golfer is the Wolfman and the others are called Hunters. By teeing off on par 4s and par 5s the player with the second-longest drive turns into the Wolfman. On par 3s the player with the second closest drive to the hole becomes the Wolfman. The hole is is played out at stroke play, afterwards the net score of the Wolfman is doubled and the net scores of the Hunters are added together. If the final score of the Wolfman is lower than the combined score of the Hunters´, the Wolfman wins the hole. If the Wolfman´s score is higher, the Hunters win and bet. The bet amount is optional and the winner earns this amount from the loser. Wolfman can also be played for points.

Wood : A club (either wood or metal) which is used for shots requiring a lot of distance.

Worm burner : If the golf ball gets barely off the ground or even doesn’t get off the ground, the bad shot is called Wormburner. Even if the golf ball rolls a proper distance, Wormburners are bad shots.

Wraparound schedule : If a pro golf tour begins in one year and finishes in the following year it is called Wraparound Schedule or Wraparound Season.

X-out : Golf Balls on which the name of the brand has been crossed out are called X-Outs or x-out golf balls. They are sold with a reduced price. The X-Outs are generally like the original ball of the brand but they have one defect through the production process, like a discoloration or a bit too much weight.

Yardage book : A booklet with illustrations of each hole on a golf course is called Yardage Book. There are overhead views and length information about the distances between hazards and landmarks on each hole. The Yardage Book helps the golfer to plan his way around the golf course.

Yellow ball : Another golf tournament format is known as Yellow Ball. There are many various names for this game, for example Money Ball, Pink Ball, Pink Lady, Devil Ball and Lone Ranger. In this golf format groups of four are playing Scramble and one of the four balls is yellow. The team players pass this yellow ball after each hole. To create a team score, the scores of each hole of two team members are added together. One score has to be from the player who played the yellow ball and the other one ist the lowest score of the others.

Yellowsomes : Yellowsomes is a golf format, which can be used in golf tournaments, competitions for two teams with two players in each or in betting games in a group with 2-vs-2. Both members of a team tee off, then the opponents decide which drive the other team has to play and the other way round. From that moment you play alternate shot. The format ist also known as Gruesomes.

Yips :  A condition, generally believed to be psychological, which causes a player to lose control of his hands and club. In Great Britain, the condition is referred to as the "Twitchies." This generally occurs when putting or in the short game, but it can also afflict people when hitting a tee shot. (Bernhard Langer has fought the yips for much of his professional career.)

Zinger : If a ball gets hit high and hard it is called Zinger.